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        當前位置:首頁 -> 產品展示->產品展示>珀金斯Perkins2506-15發動機故障排除手冊

        珀金斯Perkins2506-15發動機故障排除手冊

        詳細描述

        Troubleshooting

        2506-15 Industrial Engine

        M G A (Engine)

        MGB (Engine)

        M G D (Engine)

        Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is

        Cylinder Head Gasket

        helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel.

        1.  Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly

        and Assembly, “Cylinder Head - Remove” for the

        correct procedure.

        4.  Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

        of the  fuel. Refer to  the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual for information on improving

        the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather

        operation.

        2.  Check the cylinder liner projection. Refer  to

        Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the

        correct procedure.

        5.  Check the fuel pressure during engine cranking.

        Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer

        to Systems Operation, Testing and  Adjusting,

        “Fuel System” for the correct pressure values. If

        the fuel pressure is low, replace the fuel filters. If

        the fuel pressure is still low, check the following

        items: fuel transfer pump, fuel  transfer pump

        coupling, and fuel pressure regulating valve.

        3.  Install a new cylinder head gasket and new water

        seals in the spacer plate. Refer to Disassembly

        and Assembly, “Cylinder Head - Install” for the

        correct procedure.

        i02557773

        Engine Vibration

        Air Inlet and Exhaust System

        1.  Check for an air filter restriction. Clean plugged air

        filters or replace plugged air filters. Refer to the

        Operation and Maintenance Manual for additional

        information.

        Probable Causes

        •  Vibration damper

        2.  Check the air inlet and  exhaust system for

        restrictions and/or for leaks. Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and

        Exhaust System”.

        •  Engine supports

        •  Driven equipment

        •  Engine misfiring or running rough

        i02557763

        Engine Oil in Cooling System

        Recommended Actions

        Vibration Damper

        Check the vibration damper for damage. Install  a

        new vibration damper, if  necessary. Inspect the

        mounting bolts for damage and/or for wear. Replace

        any damaged bolts. Refer to the Disassembly and

        Assembly manual.

        Probable Causes

        •  Engine oil cooler core

        •  Cylinder head gasket

        Engine Supports

        Recommended Actions

        Inspect the mounts and the brackets while you run

        the engine through the speed range. Look for mounts

        and brackets that are loose and/or broken. Tighten

        all of the mounting bolts. Install new components, if

        necessary.

        Engine Oil Cooler Core

        1.  Inspect the engine oil cooler core for leaks. If a

        leak is found, replace the oil cooler core. Refer to

        Disassembly and Assembly, “Engine Oil Cooler

        - Remove” and Disassembly and  Assembly,

        “Engine Oil Cooler - Install”.

        Driven Equipment

        Check the alignment and the balance of the driven

        equipment.

        2.  Drain the crankcase and refill the crankcase with

        clean engine oil. Install new  engine oil filters.

        Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual

        for more information.

        Engine Misfiring or Running Rough

        Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Engine Misfires,

        Runs Rough or Is Unstable”.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        40

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        i02557776

        Hydraulic Cylinder Lock

        Engine Will Not Crank

        Check for fluid in the cylinders (hydraulic  cylinder

        lock) by removing the  individual electronic unit

        injectors.

        Probable Causes

        •  Batteries

        Note: Drain the fuel from the cylinder head. Fuel will

        flow from the cylinder head into the cylinders when

        the electronic unit injector is removed.

        •  Battery cables

        Internal Engine Fault

        •  Starting circuit

        Disassemble the engine. Refer to the Disassembly

        and Assembly  manual. Inspect the internal

        components for the following conditions:

        •  Starting motor solenoid

        •  Starting motor

        •  Seizure

        •  Flywheel ring gear

        •  Hydraulic cylinder lock

        •  Internal engine fault

        •  Broken components

        •  Bent components

        i02557812

        Recommended Actions

        Excessive Black Smoke

        Batteries and/or Battery Cables

        Probable Causes

        1.  Inspect the main power switch, battery posts,

        and battery cables for loose connections  and

        for corrosion. If the battery cables are corroded,

        remove the battery cables and clean the battery

        cables. Tighten any loose connections.

        •  Flash file

        •  Position sensors

        2.  Inspect the batteries.

        •  Atmospheric pressure sensor

        •  Inlet manifold pressure sensor

        •  “Fuel Position” and/or “FRC Fuel Limit”

        a.  Charge the batteries. Refer to local operating

        procedures.

        b. Load test the batteries. Refer to local operating

        procedures.

        •  Fuel quality

        Starting Motor Solenoid  or Starting

        Circuit

        •  Valve adjustment

        •  Air inlet or exhaust system

        1.  Test the operation of the starting motor solenoid.

        2.  Check the wiring to the starting motor solenoid.

        Recommended Actions

        Flash File

        Starting Motor or Flywheel Ring Gear

        Verify that the correct flash file is installed. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Flash Programming” for

        information.

        1.  Test the operation of the starting motor.

        2.  Inspect the pinion on the starting motor pinion and

        the flywheel ring gear for damage.

        Position Sensors

        1.  Check the calibration of the position sensors.

        Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine  Position

        Sensors - Calibrate”.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        41

        Troubleshooting Section

        2.  Verify that the crankshaft and the camshaft drive

        gears are set with the proper orientation. Refer to

        the Disassembly and Assembly manual.

        a.  Check for an air filter restriction.

        b. Perform a visual  inspection of the system for

        restrictions and/or for leaks  in the air inlet

        piping .

        Atmospheric Pressure Sensor

        1.  Remove the sensor.

        2.  Ensure that the turbocharger is in good repair.

        3.  Check the exhaust system for restrictions.

        2.  Remove debris, moisture, or ice from the sensor.

        3.  Install the sensor.

        4.  Repair any leaks that were  found. Remove

        any restrictions that were found. Replace  any

        damaged components that were found.

        4.  Check the electronic service tool  for active

        diagnostic codes on the  sensor. If no active

        diagnostic code exists, the sensor may be used.

        The correct reading for the atmospheric pressure

        is between 50  kPa (7.25 psi) and 100  kPa

        (14.5 psi).

        i02558234

        Excessive Engine  Oil

        Consumption

        Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor, “Fuel

        Position”, and/or “FRC Fuel Limit”

        Probable Causes

        •  Oil leaks

        1.  Monitor the status of “Fuel Position” and “Rated

        Fuel Limit” while the engine is operating under full

        load. If “Fuel Position” equals “Rated Fuel Limit”

        and “Fuel Position” is less than “FRC Fuel Limit”,

        the Electronic Control Module (ECM) is providing

        the correct control. Otherwise, proceed to the next

        Step.

        •  Oil level

        •  Engine oil cooler

        •  Turbocharger

        •  Valve guides

        •  Piston rings

        2.  Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes for

        the inlet manifold pressure sensor.

        3.  Monitor the status of “Boost  Pressure” and

        “Atmospheric Pressure” on the electronic service

        tool. When the engine is  not running, “Boost

        Pressure” should be 0 kPa (0 psi).

        •  Incorrect installation of the compression ring and/or

        the intermediate ring

        Note: A fault with the “FRC Fuel Limit” will only cause

        black smoke during acceleration. A fault  with the

        “FRC Fuel Limit” will not cause black smoke during

        steady state operation.

        Recommended Actions

        Oil Leaks

        Fuel Quality

        Locate all oil leaks. Repair the oil leaks. Check for a

        dirty crankcase breather.

        Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

        of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

        Manual for  information on improving  the

        characteristics of the  fuel during cold weather

        operation.

        Oil Level

        Inspect the engine oil level. Remove any extra  oil

        from the engine. Recheck all fluid levels.

        Valve Adjustment

        Engine Oil Cooler

        Check the valve adjustment.  Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting for information on

        valve adjustments.

        Check for leaks in the engine oil cooler. Check for oil

        in the engine coolant. If necessary, repair the engine

        oil cooler.

        Air Inlet or Exhaust System

        1.  Check the air inlet system for restrictions and/or

        for leaks.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        42

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        Turbocharger

        Fuel Leaks

        Check the air inlet manifold  for oil. Check for oil

        leakage past the seal rings in the  impeller end of

        the turbocharger shaft. If  necessary, repair the

        turbocharger.

        Check the fuel pressure during engine  cranking.

        Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter. Refer to

        Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the

        correct pressure values. If the fuel pressure is low,

        replace the fuel filters. If the fuel pressure is still low,

        check the following items: fuel transfer pump, fuel

        transfer pump coupling, and fuel pressure regulating

        valve.

        Valve Guides

        If the valve guides are worn, repair the cylinder head.

        Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,  “Inlet and

        Exhaust Valve Guides - Remove and Install”.

        Fuel Quality

        Piston Rings or Incorrect Installation

        of the Compression Ring  and/or the

        Intermediate Ring

        Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

        of the fuel. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

        Manual for  information on improving  the

        characteristics of the fuel  during cold weather

        operation.

        Inspect the internal engine components. Replace any

        worn components.

        Engine Speed/Timing

        Perform a calibration of the position sensor. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Engine Position Sensor

        - Calibrate”.

        i02558236

        Excessive Fuel Consumption

        Electronic Unit Injectors

        Probable Causes

        •  Engine operation

        1.  Check for correct installation  of the J1/P1

        and J2/P2 Electronic Control  Module (ECM)

        connectors and the  electronic unit injector

        connectors. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

        “Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.

        •  Fuel leaks

        •  Fuel quality

        2.  Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test”  on the

        electronic service tool in order to determine if all

        of the injector solenoids are being energized by

        the ECM.

        •  Engine speed/timing

        •  Electronic unit injectors

        •  Air inlet and exhaust system

        •  Accessory equipment

        3.  Perform the “Cylinder Cutout  Test” on the

        electronic service tool in order to  identify any

        injectors that might be misfiring.  Refer to the

        Troubleshooting Guide, “Injector Solenoid Circuit

        - Test”.

        Recommended Actions

        Air Inlet and Exhaust System

        Engine Operation

        1.  Inspect the air filter for a restriction. If the air filter

        shows signs of being plugged, clean the air filter

        or replace the air filter.

        Use the electronic service tool to check the “Current

        Totals” for a high load factor which would be indicative

        of poor operating habits.

        2.  Check the air inlet and  exhaust system for

        restrictions and/or for leaks. Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting.

        Note: Engine operation may also be  affected by

        environmental conditions such as wind and snow.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        43

        Troubleshooting Section

        Accessory Equipment

        Note: If the camshaft is replaced, the valve lifters

        must also be replaced.

        Check all accessory equipment for faults that may

        create excessive load on the engine.  Repair any

        damaged components or replace any  damaged

        components.

        3.  Adjust the engine valve lash. Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Engine Valve

        Lash - Inspect/Adjust”.

        i02558239

        i02558241

        Excessive Valve Lash

        Excessive White Smoke

        Probable Causes

        •  Lubrication

        Note: Some white smoke may be present  during

        cold start-up conditions when the engine is operating

        normally. If the white smoke persists, there may be a

        fault.

        •  Valve lash

        Probable Causes

        •  Diagnostic codes

        •  Flash file

        •  Valve train components

        Recommended Actions

        Lubrication

        •  Starting aids

        1.  Remove the valve mechanism cover. Refer to

        Disassembly and Assembly, “Valve Mechanism

        Cover - Remove and Install”.

        •  Water temperature regulators

        •  Electronic unit injectors

        •  Fuel supply

        2.  Check the lubrication in the valve compartment.

        Ensure that there is adequate engine oil flow in

        the valve compartment. The passages for  the

        engine oil must be clean.

        •  Cooling system

        •  Component wear

        Valve Lash

        Recommended Actions

        Adjust the engine valve  lash. Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Engine Valve Lash

        - Inspect/Adjust”.

        Diagnostic Codes

        Use the electronic service tool to check for active

        diagnostic codes. Troubleshoot any active diagnostic

        codes before continuing with this procedure.

        Valve Train Components

        1.  Inspect the following components of the valve

        train:

        Flash File

        •  Rocker arms

        •  Pushrods

        Verify that the correct flash file  is installed in the

        Engine Control Module (ECM). The flash file  that

        is installed in the  ECM can be displayed on the

        “Configuration” screen on the electronic service tool.

        •  Valve lifters

        •  Camshaft

        Starting Aids

        •  Valve stems

        •  Rocker shafts

        Block Heater (If Equipped)

        Ensure that the block heater is functioning correctly.

        2.  Check the components for the following conditions:

        abnormal wear, excessive wear, straightness, and

        cleanliness. Replace parts, if necessary.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        44

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        Water Temperature Regulators

        i02558246

        Fuel Dilution of Engine Oil

        Check the water temperature regulators for correct

        operation. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and

        Adjusting, “Water Temperature Regulator - Test” for

        the proper procedure.

        Probable Causes

        Electronic Unit Injectors

        •  Seals on the case of the electronic unit injector or

        on the barrel of the electronic unit injector

        Use the electronic service tool to perform the cylinder

        cutout test. Try to simulate the conditions for the test

        that were experienced during operation. Cut out each

        cylinder individually for approximately one minute in

        order to isolate any misfiring cylinders. If the misfire

        can be isolated to a specific  cylinder, proceed to

        Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.

        •  Seals on the fuel line adapter for the cylinder head

        •  Electronic unit injector

        •  Fuel supply manifold

        •  Fuel transfer pump seal

        Fuel Supply

        Recommended Actions

        1.  Monitor the exhaust for smoke while the engine

        is being cranked.

        Seals on the Case of the Electronic Unit

        Injector or on the Barrel of the Electronic

        Unit Injector

        If no smoke is present, there may be a fault with

        the fuel quality or there may be a fault in the fuel

        supply.

        2.  Check the fuel pressure. Refer  to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System

        Pressure - Test”.

        Look for signs  of damage to the seals  for the

        electronic unit injectors. Replace any seals that are

        leaking.

        3.  Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.

        Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

        “Fuel System - Prime” for the correct procedure.

        Seals on the Fuel Line Adapter for the

        Cylinder Head

        Look for signs of damage to the seals on the fuel line

        adapter for the cylinder head. Repair any leaking fuel

        lines or components and/or replace any leaking fuel

        lines or components.

        4.  Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

        5.  Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

        of the  fuel. Refer to  the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual for information on improving

        the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather

        operation.

        Electronic Unit Injector

        Look for signs of  damage to the electronic unit

        injectors. If necessary, repair the  electronic unit

        injectors or replace the electronic unit injectors.

        Cooling System

        Check for an internal coolant leak. Check for coolant

        in the engine oil, coolant in the cylinders, and coolant

        in the exhaust system. Refer to Systems Operation,

        Testing and Adjusting, “Cooling System - Test”.

        Fuel Supply Manifold

        Look for signs of damage to the fuel supply manifold.

        Fuel Transfer Pump Seal

        Component Wear

        Ensure that the  weep hole is not  plugged. If

        necessary, repair the fuel transfer pump or replace

        the fuel transfer pump.

        Check the following components for excessive wear:

        •  Valves

        •  Pistons

        •  Rings

        •  Cylinder liners

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        45

        Troubleshooting Section

        i02558247

        •  J61/P61 Customer connectors

        Intermittent Engine Shutdown

        •  J300/P300 Connectors for the injector solenoid

        harness

        •  J401/P401 and J402/P402 Engine position

        sensor connectors

        Note: Use this procedure only if  the engine shut

        down completely and it was necessary to restart the

        engine.

        2.  Check the associated wiring for the following

        conditions: damage, abrasion, corrosion, and

        incorrect attachment.

        Probable Causes

        •  Diagnostic codes or event codes

        •  Operating conditions

        •  Electrical connections

        •  Remote shutdown

        Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical

        Connectors - Inspect”.

        Note: Aftermarket engine protection devices usually

        interrupt power to the  ECM. Check for correct

        installation and for operation of aftermarket engine

        protection devices. It may be necessary to bypass

        the aftermarket devices in order to continue testing.

        •  Circuit breakers and fuses

        •  Fuel supply

        Remote Shutdown

        1.  Access the status screen that displays the remote

        shutdown switch status. The remote shutdown

        switch status on the electronic  service tool is

        called “Injection Disable”.

        Note: If the fault only occurs under certain conditions

        such as high engine  speed, full load or engine

        operating temperature, then perform the test under

        those operating conditions.

        2.  Refer to Table 8 and measure the voltage between

        Recommended Actions

        each terminal that is listed and the engine ground.

        Table 8

        Diagnostic Codes or Event Codes

        Measured Voltage at

        “User Shutdown” Status

        J1-62

        Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may

        cause the engine to shutdown. Connect the electronic

        service tool and check for active codes  and/or for

        logged codes. Troubleshoot any  codes that are

        present before continuing with this procedure.

        Injection Enabled

        Injection Disabled

        24 VDC

        0.9 VDC

        3.  If the voltage is not in the proper range, refer to

        Operating Conditions

        Troubleshooting, “Switch Circuits - Test”.

        The engine may be shut down due to low pressure

        levels or other factors. Connect the electronic service

        tool and check for active shutdowns or  diagnostic

        codes.

        Circuit Breakers and Fuses

        Check the circuit breakers and  fuses. The circuit

        breakers may  exceed the trip point  due to

        overheating. Reset the circuit breakers if the circuit

        breakers are tripped. Replace any blown fuses.

        If a shutdown is  active, “Injection Disabled” will

        appear in the third box of any status screen on the

        electronic service tool.

        Fuel Supply

        An engine shutdown event will appear on a J1939

        device if the device is capable of displaying diagnostic

        codes.

        Check for a fault in the fuel supply.  Verify that the

        fuel pressure is correct. Refer to Systems Operation,

        Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel System Pressure - Test”

        for additional information.

        Electrical Connections

        1.  Check the following connectors  for proper

        installation:

        •  J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors for the Electronic

        Control Module (ECM)

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        46

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        i02558254

        Oil Cooler

        Low Engine Oil Pressure

        Check the oil cooler for plugging or blockage. Clean

        the oil cooler core. If necessary, replace the engine

        oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Oil

        Cooler - Remove” and Disassembly and Assembly,

        “Oil Cooler - Install”.

        NOTICE

        Do not operate  engine with low oil pressure.  Engine

        damage will  result. If  measured engine oil  pressure

        is low, discontinue  engine operation until  the fault is

        corrected.

        Fuel Dilution

        Check for presence of fuel in lubricating oil. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Fuel Dilution of Engine

        Oil”.

        Probable Causes

        •  Engine oil level

        Engine Wear

        Inspect the camshaft and/or camshaft  bearings

        for excessive wear. Inspect the crankshaft and/or

        crankshaft bearings. Excessive wear to  discrete

        components may be an indication of a blocked  oil

        passage. Use an oil pressure gauge to check  the

        oil pressure at the main oil  gallery. This will help

        determine if the excessive wear is from low system

        pressure or from passages that are blocked.

        •  Engine oil filters and oil filter bypass valve

        •  Engine oil pump

        •  Engine oil cooler

        •  Fuel dilution

        •  Engine wear

        i02558264

        Recommended Actions

        Low Power

        Engine Oil Level

        Inspect the engine oil level. If engine oil is low add

        engine oil. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

        Manual.

        Probable Causes

        •  Diagnostic codes

        •  Event codes

        Engine Oil Filters and Oil Filter Bypass

        Valve

        •  Engine rating

        Check the service  records of the  engine for

        information that is related to the last oil change.  If

        necessary, perform an oil change on the engine and

        replace the engine oil filters.

        •  Programmable parameters

        •  Cold mode

        Check the operation of oil filter bypass valve. Clean

        the bypass valve and the  housing. If necessary,

        install new parts.

        •  Electrical connectors

        •  Circuit for electronic unit injectors

        •  Fuel supply

        Engine Oil Pump

        Check for blockage of the inlet screen for the engine

        oil pump. Check the components of the engine oil

        pump for excessive wear. If necessary, repair the oil

        pump or replace the oil pump.

        •  Inlet manifold pressure sensor, rated fuel position

        and/or FRC fuel position

        •  Air inlet and exhaust system

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        47

        Troubleshooting Section

        Recommended Actions

        Circuit for the Electronic Unit Injector

        Note: If the fault only occurs under certain conditions,

        test the engine under those conditions. Examples

        of certain conditions are  high rpm, full load and

        engine operating temperature. Troubleshooting

        the symptoms under other  conditions can give

        misleading results.

        Inspect the J2/P2 ECM connector and the J300/P300

        electronic unit injector  connector for proper

        connections. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

        “ Electrical Connectors - Inspect”.  Cut out each

        cylinder in order to isolate a  misfiring cylinder or

        cylinders. If the results are inconclusive, shut off half

        of the cylinders and repeat the cylinder cutout test

        on the active cylinders that are remaining in order to

        locate those cylinders that are missing. Refer to the

        Troubleshooting Guide, “Injector Solenoid Circuit -

        Test”.

        Diagnostic Codes and Event Codes

        Certain diagnostic codes and/or event codes may

        cause poor performance. Connect the electronic

        service tool and check for active codes and for logged

        codes. Troubleshoot any codes that  are present

        before continuing with this procedure.

        Fuel Supply

        Check for a fault in the fuel supply and verify the fuel

        pressure. For further information, refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Fuel  System

        Pressure - Test”.

        Engine Rating

        Verify that the correct engine rating is being used for

        the application.

        Inlet Manifold Pressure Sensor, Rated

        Fuel Position and/or FRC Fuel Position

        Programmable Parameters

        Check the following parameter on  the electronic

        service tool:

        1.  With the engine at full load, monitor “Fuel Position”

        and “Rated Fuel Limit” on the status  screen. If

        “Fuel Position” does not equal “Rated Fuel Limit”,

        then check air inlet manifold pressure.

        •  Desired speed input

        Verify that the injector trim files are programmed.

        2.  Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes

        that are associated with the inlet manifold pressure

        sensor or with the atmospheric pressure sensor.

        Cold Mode

        3.  Monitor air inlet  manifold pressure and

        atmospheric pressure for normal operation on the

        status screen.

        Monitor the status screen on the electronic service

        tool in order to verify that the engine has exited cold

        mode. Observe the reading for coolant temperature

        on the electronic service tool. The  engine should

        exit cold mode whenever the coolant temperature is

        above 18 °C (64 °F).

        Air Inlet and Exhaust System

        Check the air  inlet and exhaust systems  for

        restrictions and for  leaks. Refer to Systems

        Electrical Connectors

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air  Inlet and

        Exhaust System”. Look for  an indication of the

        warning lamp or restriction indicators that are tripped

        if the filters are equipped with these devices. These

        indicators are associated with plugged filters. Replace

        the plugged air filters or clean the plugged air filters.

        Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

        Repair any leaks that are found in the system.

        Check the associated wiring for damage, abrasion,

        corrosion or incorrect attachment on the following

        connectors. J1/P1 and J2/P2 ECM  connectors,

        J61/P61 customer connector  (optional), and

        J403/P403 throttle position sensor connector. Refer

        to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical Connectors

        - Inspect” for additional information.

        i02558272

        Mechanical Noise (Knock) in

        Engine

        Probable Causes

        •  Driven equipment

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        48

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        •  Gear train

        i02558282

        Noise Coming from Cylinder

        •  Cylinder head and related components

        •  Crankshaft and related components

        •  Pistons

        Probable Causes

        •  Diagnostic codes

        •  Fuel quality

        Recommended Repairs

        Driven Equipment

        •  Electronic unit injectors

        •  Valve lash

        Inspect the alignment and the balance of the driven

        equipment. Inspect the  coupling. If necessary,

        disconnect the driven equipment and test the engine.

        Recommended Actions

        Gear Train

        Diagnostic Codes

        Inspect the condition of the gear train.

        Inspect the engine oil filters for nonferrous material.

        Flaking of nonferrous material could indicate worn

        gear train bearings.

        Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic

        service tool. Troubleshoot any active  diagnostic

        codes before continuing with this procedure.

        Cylinder Head and Related Components

        Fuel Quality

        Inspect the components of the valve train for good

        condition. Check for signs of damage and/or wear

        to the valves, cylinder head gasket, etc. Inspect the

        condition of the camshafts. If a camshaft is replaced,

        new valve lifters must be installed.

        Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual for

        information on the characteristics of the fuel.

        Electronic Unit Injectors

        1.  Check the connectors on the Electronic Control

        Module (ECM). Check for correct installation of

        the J1/P1 and J2/P2 ECM connectors. Inspect the

        unit injector wiring harness from the ECM to the

        J300/P300 valve cover entry connector. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical Connectors

        - Inspect”.

        Crankshaft

        Inspect the crankshaft and the related components.

        Inspect the connecting rod bearings and the bearing

        surfaces on the crankshaft.  Make sure that the

        bearings are in the correct position.

        Look for worn  thrust plates and wear  on the

        crankshaft.

        2.  Perform the “Injector Solenoid Test”  on the

        electronic service tool in order to determine if all

        of the injector solenoids are being energized by

        the ECM. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

        “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test”.

        Check the counterweight bolts.

        Pistons

        3.  Perform the “Cylinder Cutout  Test” on the

        electronic service tool in order to  identify any

        injectors that may be misfiring.

        Make sure that the piston pins are correctly installed.

        Inspect the pistons for wear or damage.

        Valve Lash

        Check the engine valve lash settings. Inspect the

        valve train for sufficient lubrication. Check damage to

        valve train components which may cause excessive

        valve lash. Repair any faults that are found. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Excessive Valve Lash”.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        49

        Troubleshooting Section

        i02558285

        Poor Acceleration or Response

        3.  Perform the cylinder cutout test on the electronic

        service tool in order to identify any injectors that

        might be misfiring. Refer to  Troubleshooting,

        “Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test” for the proper

        procedure.

        Probable Causes

        •  Cold mode operation

        •  Flash file

        Fuel Position, Rated Fuel Limit, and FRC

        Fuel Position

        1.  Monitor the status of “Fuel Position” and “Rated

        Fuel Limit” while the engine is operating under full

        load. If “Fuel Position” equals “Rated Fuel Limit”

        and “Fuel Position” is less than “FRC Fuel Limit”,

        the electronics are operating correctly. Otherwise,

        proceed to the next Step.

        •  Electrical connectors

        •  Electronic unit injectors

        •  Fuel Position, Rated Fuel Limit, and  FRC Fuel

        Position

        2.  Verify that there are no active diagnostic codes for

        the inlet manifold pressure sensor.

        •  Air inlet and exhaust system

        •  Fuel supply

        3.  Monitor the “Intake Manifold Pressure”  and

        “Atmospheric Pressure” for normal operation.

        When the engine is not running, “Boost Pressure”

        should be 0 kPa (0 psi).

        Recommended Actions

        Air Inlet and Exhaust System

        Cold Mode Operation

        1.  Check for an air filter restriction indicator. Clean

        plugged air filters or replace plugged air filters.

        Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual.

        Monitor the status screen on the electronic service

        tool in order to verify that the engine has exited cold

        mode. Observe the reading for coolant temperature

        on the electronic service tool. The  engine should

        exit cold mode whenever the coolant temperature is

        above 18 °C (64 °F).

        2.  Check the air inlet and  exhaust system for

        restrictions and/or leaks.  Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air Inlet and

        Exhaust System”.

        Flash File

        Fuel Supply

        Verify that the correct flash file is installed.

        1.  Check the fuel lines for  the following faults:

        restrictions, collapsed lines, and pinched lines. If

        faults are found with the fuel lines, repair the lines

        and/or replace the lines.

        Electrical Connectors

        Check for correct installation of the J1/P1 and J2/P2

        connectors for the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

        Check for correct installation of  the JH300/P300

        electronic unit injector connectors.  Refer to the

        Troubleshooting Guide, “Electrical Connectors -

        Inspect”.

        2.  Check the fuel tank for foreign objects which may

        block the fuel supply.

        NOTICE

        Do not crank  the engine continuously  for more than

        30 seconds. Allow  the starting motor  to cool for  two

        minutes before cranking the engine again.

        Electronic Unit Injectors

        1.  Use the electronic service tool to determine if

        there are any active diagnostic  codes for the

        electronic unit injectors.

        3.  Prime the fuel system if any of  the following

        procedures have been performed:

        2.  Perform the injector solenoid test on the electronic

        service tool in order to  determine if all of the

        injector solenoids are being energized  by the

        ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Injector Solenoid

        Circuit - Test” for the proper procedure.

        •  Replacement of the fuel filters

        •  Service on the low pressure fuel supply circuit

        •  Replacement of electronic unit injectors

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        50

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        Note: A sight glass in the low pressure supply line is

        helpful in diagnosing air in the fuel. Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Air in Fuel - Test”

        for more information.

        4.  Cold weather adversely affects the characteristics

        of the  fuel. Refer to  the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual for information on improving

        the characteristics of the fuel during cold weather

        operation.

        5.  Check the fuel pressure after the fuel filter while

        the engine is being cranked. Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting for the correct

        pressure values. If the  fuel pressure is low,

        replace the fuel filters. If  the fuel pressure is

        still low, check the following items: fuel transfer

        pump, fuel transfer pump  coupling, and fuel

        pressure regulating valve. Refer  to Systems

        Operation/Testing and Adjusting  for more

        information.

        i02558323

        Valve Rotator or Spring Lock

        Is Free

        Probable Causes

        •  Valve rotator

        •  Spring locks

        •  Valve springs

        •  Valves

        Recommended Actions

        1.  Determine the cause of an engine overspeed that

        would crack the valve rotator. Repair the condition.

        2.  Inspect the following components for damage:

        •  Valve rotators

        •  Spring locks

        •  Valve springs

        •  Valves

        Note: Ensure that the valve has not contacted the

        piston. If the valve has contacted the piston, check

        the exhaust system for debris.

        3.  Replace any damaged components.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        51

        Troubleshooting Section

        Troubleshooting with a

        Diagnostic Code

        Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,  “Diagnostic

        Code Cross Reference” for the complete list of the

        diagnostic codes and a description of each  code.

        There is a troubleshooting  procedure for every

        diagnostic code. Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide,

        “Troubleshooting With A Diagnostic Code”.

        i02559723

        Flash Codes

        When a diagnostic code is activated, the Electronic

        Control Module (ECM) transmits information about

        the code over the J1939  data link. Some J1939

        devices may display the code. However, the code will

        be displayed with a J1939 Diagnostic Code. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Diagnostic Code Cross

        Reference” for a cross-reference between J1939

        Diagnostic Code and diagnostic codes.

        Flash codes are a simple way to alert the operator

        that a fault exists with  the control system for the

        engine or with the operation of  the engine. Each

        flash code is a two digit number. The diagnostic lamp

        flashes in order to identify the flash code.

        Do not confuse diagnostic codes with event codes.

        Event codes alert the operator that  an abnormal

        operating condition such as low oil pressure or high

        coolant temperature has been detected. Refer to

        the Troubleshooting Guide, “Troubleshooting with

        an Event Code” for additional information on event

        codes.

        EXAMPLE

        Note: Flash Code 27 would flash on the diagnostic

        lamp in the following manner:

        •  Two short flashes

        •  Hesitation

        •  Seven short flashes

        For the descriptions of  the flash codes, refer to

        Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Code Cross Reference”.

        i02559725

        Diagnostic Codes

        Diagnostic Codes

        Diagnostic codes alert the operator that a fault  in

        the electronic system has been detected. Diagnostic

        codes also indicate the nature  of the fault to the

        service technician. The electronic service  tool is

        a software program that is  designed to run on a

        personal computer. Diagnostic codes may be viewed

        on a personal computer  that has the electronic

        service tool software. Diagnostic codes consist of

        the component identifier (CID) and the failure mode

        identifier (FMI).

        Component Identifier (CID)  – The CID is a number

        with three or four  digits. The CID indicates the

        component that generated the code. For example,

        the CID number 0001 identifies the fuel injector for

        the number one cylinder.

        Failure Mode Identifier (FMI)  – The FMI is a two

        digit code that indicates the type of failure.

        Illustration 10

        g01117578

        Output voltage from a typical analog temperature sensor

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        52

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        Illustration 10 indicates the signal range for a typical

        analog sensor. Diagnostic codes will be generated if

        the sensor’s output signal is below 0.2 VDC or above

        4.8 VDC.

        i02558820

        Diagnostic Code  Cross

        Reference

        Active Diagnostic Codes

        Faults in the electronic control system are reported

        via these types of codes:  flash codes, CID/FMI

        diagnostic codes, and event codes.

        An active diagnostic code represents a fault in the

        electronic control system. Correct the fault as soon

        as possible.

        For information  on flash  codes, refer to

        Troubleshooting, “Flash Codes”.

        When the ECM generates an active diagnostic code,

        the “Active Alarm” indicator (“Engine Control Alarm

        Status” on the electronic service tool) is activated

        in order to alert the operator.  If the condition that

        generated the code is momentary,  the message

        disappears from the list of active diagnostic codes.

        The diagnostic code becomes logged.

        For information on  CID/FMI codes, refer  to

        Troubleshooting, “Diagnostic Codes”.

        For information  on event codes,  refer to

        Troubleshooting, “Event Codes”.

        Logged Diagnostic Codes

        Use Table 10 as a  cross-reference between the

        various types of codes.

        When the ECM generates a diagnostic code,  the

        ECM logs the code  in permanent memory. The

        ECM has an internal diagnostic clock. Each ECM

        will record the following information when a code is

        generated:

        •  The hour of the first occurrence of the code

        •  The hour of the last occurrence of the code

        •  The number of occurrences of the code

        This information  is a valuable indicator  for

        troubleshooting intermittent faults.

        A code is cleared from memory  when one of the

        following conditions occur:

        •  The service technician manually clears the code.

        •  The code does not recur for 100 hours.

        •  A new code is logged and there are already ten

        codes in memory. In this case, the oldest code is

        cleared.

        Some diagnostic codes may be easily  triggered.

        Some diagnostic codes may log occurrences that did

        not result in complaints. The most likely cause of an

        intermittent fault is a faulty connection or damaged

        wiring. The next likely cause is a component failure.

        The least likely cause is the failure of an electronic

        module. Diagnostic codes that are logged repeatedly

        may indicate a fault that needs special investigation.

        Note: Always clear logged diagnostic codes after

        investigating and correcting the fault which generated

        the code.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        53

        Troubleshooting Section

        Table 9

        Cross Reference  for Diagnostic  Codes

        J1939

        Description of  Diagnostic Code

        Flash Code

        CID

        (1)

        /FMI

        (2)

        Code

        Diagnostic

        Code

        71

        72

        73

        74

        75

        76

        21

        21

        32

        24

        24

        27

        27

        51

        38

        38

        13

        13

        34

        34

        34

        34

        58

        -

        0001-11

        0002-11

        0003-11

        0004-11

        0005-11

        0006-11

        0041-03

        0041-04

        0091-08

        0100-03

        0100-04

        0110-03

        0110-04

        0168-02

        0172-03

        0172-04

        0174-03

        0174-04

        0190-02

        0190-09

        0190-11,

        0190-12

        0247-09

        0248-09

        0253-02

        0254-12

        0261-13

        0262-03

        0262-04

        0268-02

        0273-03

        0273-04

        0274-03

        0274-04

        0342-02

        0342-11

        0342-12

        J0651-11

        J0652-11

        J0653-11

        J0654-11

        J0655-11

        J0656-11

        J0678-3

        J0678-4

        J0091-8

        J0100-3

        J0100-4

        J0110-3

        J0110-4

        J0168-2

        J0172-3

        J0172-4

        J0174-3

        J0174-4

        J0190-2

        J0190-9

        J0190-11

        J0190-12

        J0639-09

        -

        Cylinder #1 Injector other failure mode

        Cylinder #2 Injector other failure mode

        Cylinder #3 Injector other failure mode

        Cylinder #4 Injector other failure mode

        Cylinder #5 Injector other failure mode

        Cylinder #6 Injector other failure mode

        8 Volt DC Supply voltage above normal

        8 Volt DC Supply voltage below normal

        Throttle Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period

        Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage above normal

        Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage below normal

        Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage above normal

        Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage below normal

        Electrical System Voltage erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

        Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage above normal

        Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage belowe normal

        Fuel Temperature Sensor voltage above normal

        Fuel Temperature Sensor voltage below normal

        Engine Speed Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

        Engine Speed Sensor abnormal update rate

        Engine Speed Sensor mechanical failure

        Engine Speed Sensor failure

        SAE J1939 Data Link abnormal update rate

        Perkins Data Link not communicating

        -

        -

        Personality Module erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

        Electronic Control Module Error

        -

        -

        42

        21

        21

        56

        25

        25

        26

        26

        34

        34

        34

        J0637-13

        J0620-03

        J0620-04

        J0630-02

        J0102-03

        J0102-04

        J0108-03

        J0108-04

        J0723-2

        Engine Timing Calibration calibration required

        5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage above normal

        5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage below normal

        Programmed Parameter Fault erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

        Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor voltage above normal

        Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor voltage below normal

        Atmospheric Pressure Sensor voltage above normal

        Atmospheric Pressure Sensor voltage below normal

        Secondary Engine Speed Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect

        Secondary Engine Speed Sensor other failure mode

        J0723-11

        J0723-12

        Secondary Engine Speed Sensor failure

        (continued)

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        54

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        (Table 9, contd)

        Cross Reference  for Diagnostic  Codes

        J1939

        Description of  Diagnostic Code

        Flash Code

        CID

        (1)

        /FMI

        (2)

        Code

        Diagnostic

        Code

        -

        -

        0799-12

        1690-08

        -

        -

        Need Service tool update

        Throttle #2 Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width,  or

        period

        (1)  Component Identifier

        (2)  Failure Mode Identifier

        Table 10

        Cross Reference  for Event  Codes

        J1939 Event

        Code

        Flash Code

        Event Code

        Description of  Event Code

        -

        -

        -

        -

        E085

        -

        Engine Shutdown Overridden

        E162-1

        E162-2

        E255-1

        E360-1

        E360-2

        E360-3

        E361-1

        E361-2

        E361-3

        E362-1

        E362-2

        E362-3

        E363-1

        E363-2

        E368-1

        E368-2

        J0102-15

        J0102-16

        -

        High Boost Pressure (Warning)

        High Boost Pressure (Alert)

        Diagnostic Reset

        46

        46

        46

        61

        61

        61

        35

        35

        35

        65

        65

        -

        J0100-17

        J0100-18

        J0100-01

        J0110-15

        J0110-16

        J0110-00

        J0190-15

        J0190-16

        J0190-00

        J0174-15

        J0174-16

        J0172-15

        J0172-16

        Low Engine Oil Pressure (Warning)

        Low Engine Oil Pressure (Alert)

        Low Engine Oil Pressure (Shutdown)

        High Engine Coolant Temperature (Warning)

        High Engine Coolant Temperature (Alert)

        High Engine Coolant Temperature (Shutdown)

        Engine Overspeed (Warning)

        Engine Overspeed (Alert)

        Engine Overspeed (Shutdown)

        High Fuel Supply Temperature (Warning)

        High Fuel Supply Temperature (Alert)

        High Intake Manifold Air Temperature (Warning)

        High Intake Manifold Air Temperature (Alert)

        -

        If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

        i02559726

        common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

        of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

        injectors.

        CID 0001 FMI 11

        System Response:

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

        continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

        injector after the code has been logged.

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

        operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

        an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

        electronic unit injector.

        The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

        condition exists.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        KENR6224

        55

        Troubleshooting Section

        Possible Performance Effect:

        •  Engine misfires

        If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

        common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

        of the shared common wire for the injectors.

        •  Low power

        System Response:

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

        Solenoid Circuit - Test”

        The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

        continue to attempt to operate the injector after the

        code has been logged.

        Results:

        The injector may not operate while  the condition

        exists.

        •  OK  – STOP.

        Possible Performance Effect:

        i02559727

        CID 0002 FMI 11

        •  Engine misfires

        •  Low power

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

        Solenoid Circuit - Test”

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting

        to operate the injector. The ECM detects an  open

        circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the injector.

        Results:

        •  OK  – STOP.

        If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault in  the

        common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

        of the shared common wire for the injectors.

        i02559729

        CID 0004 FMI 11

        System Response:

        The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

        continue to attempt to operate the injector after the

        code has been logged.

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

        operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

        an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

        electronic unit injector.

        The injector may not operate while  the condition

        exists.

        Possible Performance Effect:

        •  Engine misfires

        If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

        common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

        of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

        injectors.

        •  Low power

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

        Solenoid Circuit - Test”

        System Response:

        The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

        continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

        injector after the code has been logged.

        Results:

        •  OK  – STOP.

        The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

        condition exists.

        i02559728

        CID 0003 FMI 11

        Possible Performance Effect:

        •  Engine misfires

        •  Low power

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

        Solenoid Circuit - Test”

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting

        to operate the injector. The ECM detects an  open

        circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the injector.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        56

        KENR6224

        Troubleshooting Section

        Results:

        If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault  in the

        common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

        of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

        injectors.

        •  OK  – STOP.

        i02561040

        System Response:

        CID 0005 FMI 11

        The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

        continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

        injector after the code has been logged.

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

        condition exists.

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

        operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

        an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

        electronic unit injector.

        Possible Performance Effect:

        •  Engine misfires

        If the cause of the diagnostic code is a fault in  the

        common wire, two cylinders will be affected because

        of the shared common wire for the  electronic unit

        injectors.

        •  Low power

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

        Solenoid Circuit - Test”

        System Response:

        Results:

        The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will

        continue to attempt to operate the  electronic unit

        injector after the code has been logged.

        •  OK  – STOP.

        i02559721

        The electronic unit injector may not operate while the

        condition exists.

        CID 0041 FMI 03

        Possible Performance Effect:

        •  Engine misfires

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        The voltage level of the 8 volt supply is above normal.

        System Response:

        •  Low power

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Injector

        Solenoid Circuit - Test”

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log  the

        diagnostic code. The diagnostic code can be viewed

        on a display module or on the electronic service tool.

        The ECM flags all digital sensors as invalid data and

        all digital sensors are set to the respective default

        values.

        Results:

        •  OK  – STOP.

        i02561042

        CID 0006 FMI 11

        Possible Performance Effect:

        •  The engine may experience low power.

        Troubleshooting:

        Conditions Which Generate This Code:

        Perform the following diagnostic procedure: “Digital

        Sensor Supply Circuit - Test”

        The Electronic Control Module (ECM) is attempting to

        operate the electronic unit injector. The ECM detects

        an open circuit or a short circuit in the circuit for the

        electronic unit injector.

        Results:

        •  OK  – STOP.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

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