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        珀金斯Perkins2306A(C)-E14用戶手冊

        詳細描述

        Perkins 2300 Series

        Models 2306A-E14 and 2306C-E14

        USER’S HANDBOOK

        6 cylinder turbocharged diesel engines for industrial

        applications

        How to renew the air cleaner element

        The air filter contains a paper element. This must not be washed. Renew the paper element as follows:

        1  Loosen the clamp and remove the end cover (A1). Withdraw and discard the filter element (A2).

        2  Clean, thoroughly, the inside of the casing (A3). Fit a new filter element and fit the end cover.

        3  Reset the restriction indicator.

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        How to check the drive belts

        Check all drive belts and renew a belt if it is worn or damaged. Where more than one belt is used between two

        pulleys, all of the belts must be renewed together. Maximum belt life will be obtained only if the belts are kept

        at the correct tensions. Where more than one belt is used, check/adjust the tension on the tightest belt.

        How to adjust the tension of the fan belts

        Remove the fan guards and proceed as follows.

        Use a Borroughs belt tension gauge. Check the tension at the position shown (A1). It should be 800 N, which

        is equivalent to 4,0 mm of movement when a force of 33 N is applied. To adjust the tension, proceed as follows:

        1  Loosen the lock nuts on the adjustment bolt (A2), loosen the large lock nut on the belt tensioner and turn

        the adjustment bolt (A2) until the correct tension is obtained. Fully tighten the large lock nut and check the

        tension of the belts again. If the tension is correct, loosen the adjustment bolt (A2) just enough to release its

        tension, then tighten its lock nuts.

        2  Fit the fan guards and run the engine for 15 minutes. Remove the guards and check again the tension.

        For new fan belts, set the tension to 868 N, which is equivalent to 4,0 mm of movement when a force of 35,7 N

        is applied. After the engine has been run for 15 minutes, check the tension and adjust it to 800 N; equivalent

        to 4,0 mm of movement when a force of 33 N is applied.

        3  When the correct tension is obtained, fit the fan guards.

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        How to adjust the tension of the alternator belt

        Remove the access panel in the fan guard and proceed as follows.

        Use a Borroughs belt tension gauge. Check the tension at the position shown (A5). It should be 267 N, which

        is equivalent to 2,5 mm of movement when a force of 11,3 N is applied. To adjust the tension, proceed as

        follows:

        1  Loosen the alternator pivot bolt (A3), the adjustment link bolt which is behind the fan pulley and the

        adjustment bolt (A4). Move the alternator to obtain the correct belt tension and tighten the bolts.

        2  Fit the access panel to the fan guard and run the engine for 15 minutes. Remove the access panel and check

        again the tension.

        If a new alternator belt is fitted, set the tension to 400 N, which is equivalent to 2,5 mm of movement when a

        force of 16,6 N is applied. After the engine has been run for 15 minutes, check the tension and adjust it to

        267 N; equivalent to 2,5 mm of movement when a force of 11,3 N is applied.

        3  When the correct tension is obtained, fit the access panel to the fan guard.

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        How to renew the fan belts

        1  Remove the fan guards.

        2  Remove the six bolts which secure the fan and hub assembly to the pulley and remove the assembly.

        Caution: Take care during the removal of the fan; ensure that the radiator does not become damaged.

        3  Loosen the belt tensioner and remove the old belts. Ensure that the grooves of the pulley are free from

        grease and dirt and fit a new set of belts.

        4  Fit the fan and tighten the bolts securely. Adjust the fan belts to the correct tension, as given in "How to

        adjust the tension of the fan belts" on page 31, and fit the fan guards.

        How to renew the alternator belt

        1  Remove the fan guards.

        2  Remove the six bolts which secure the fan and hub assembly to the pulley and remove the assembly.

        Caution: Take care during the removal of the fan; ensure that the radiator does not become damaged.

        3  Loosen the adjustment bolts to release the tension on the alternator belt and remove the old belt. Check that

        the pulley grooves are clean and fit a new belt.

        4  Fit the fan and tighten the bolts securely. Adjust the alternator belt to the correct tension, as given in "How

        to adjust the tension of the alternator belt" on page 32, and fit the fan guards.

        How to inspect the crankshaft vibration damper

        The viscous damper has a weight that is located inside a case filled with fluid. The weight moves in the case

        to limit torsional vibration. Inspect the damper for evidence of dents, cracks or leaks of the fluid.

        Renew the damper if it is dented, cracked or leaking.

        The damper is mounted on the crankshaft and is located behind the belt guard at the front of the engine. Refer

        to the Workshop Manual for the correct procedure to remove and to fit the damper.

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        Earth stud

        Inspect the wiring harness for good connections and inspect the condition of the harness. Check the tightness

        of the earth stud (A1) at the periods specified in the service schedule. The earth stud is fitted below the ECM

        at the left side of the crankcase. The earth strap is fitted between the earth stud and a terminal on the starter

        motor (A2). For engines which have the starter motor fitted to the right side, or engines not fitted with an electric

        starter motor, the earth strap is fitted between the earth stud and the negative terminal of the starter battery.

        1  Disconnect the batteries before any service work is attempted.

        2  Remove the nut which retains the earth strap on the earth stud (A1) and remove the earth strap.

        3  Remove the washer and use a torque wrench and suitable socket to check the tightness of the earth stud.

        The earth stud must be tightened to a torque of 47 Nm (35 lbf ft).

        Notes:

        If the earth stud is removed, the short end must be fitted into the crankcase.

        If the earth strap is disconnected from the starter motor, it must be connected again and the nut which

        retains it must be tightened to a torque of 30,5 +/- 3,5 Nm (22.5 +/- 2.5 lbf ft).

        4  Clean the earth stud and the earth strap with a clean cloth. If the connections are corroded, clean them with

        a solution of sodium bicarbonate and water.

        5  Fit the washer and the earth strap. Fit the retaining nut and tighten to a torque of 47 Nm (35 lbf ft).

        6  Keep the earth stud and the strap clean and coated with petroleum jelly.

        7  Connect the batteries.

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        Hoses and hose clips

        Inspect all hoses for leaks which may be caused by:

        Cracks

        Softness

        Loose clips

        Renew hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any loose clips.

        Check for these conditions:

        End fittings that are damaged or leaking

        Outer covering that is chafed or cut

        Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement

        Outer covering that is ballooning locally

        Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed

        Armour that is embedded in the outer covering

        To renew a hose

        Warning! Take care during removal of the filler cap as the coolant system may be under pressure.

        1  Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.

        2  Loosen the filler cap of the coolant system slowly to relieve any pressure. Remove the filler cap.

        Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean container. The coolant can be used again.

        3  Drain the coolant to a level below the hose which is to be renewed.

        4  Remove the hose clips and remove the old hose.

        5  Fit the new hose.

        6  Fill the coolant system to the correct level with the specified coolant mixture.

        7  Clean the filler cap and inspect the gaskets. Renew the filler cap if the gaskets are damaged. Fit the filler cap.

        8  Start the engine. Inspect the coolant system for leaks.

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        How to clean the radiator

        Inspect the radiator for damaged fins, corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other debris. Clean the

        exterior of the radiator, if necessary.

        Warnings!

        During the use of high pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.

        Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

        Use a high pressure air jet to remove loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction to the fan's air flow.

        Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm (0.25 in) away from the fins. Move the air nozzle slowly in a direction that

        is parallel with the tubes to remove debris from between them.

        A high pressure water jet may also be used to clean the radiator. The maximum water pressure for cleaning

        purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Do not hold the nozzle too close to the radiator as the fins can

        be damaged. Use pressurized water to soften mud. Clean the core from both sides.

        Use a degreaser and steam for the removal of oil and grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core with

        detergent and hot water. Rinse thoroughly with clean water.

        After the radiator has been cleaned, start the engine and run it at high idle speed. This will help to dry the core

        and remove debris. Stop the engine and use a light bulb, held behind the core, to inspect for cleanliness. Clean

        again, if necessary.

        Inspect the fins for damage. Check the condition of the welds, the mounting brackets, the connections and

        seals. Arrange for repairs as necessary.

        How to inspect the engine mountings

        Inspect the engine mountings. Check for damage or deterioration and check that the bolts are tightened to the

        correct torque. Note that engine vibration can be caused by:

        Incorrect mounting of the engine.

        Deterioration of the engine mounts.

        If an engine mount shows signs of deterioration, it must be renewed.

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        How to drain the coolant system

        Warnings!

        Do not remove the coolant filler cap while the engine is still hot and the system is under pressure because

        dangerous hot coolant can be discharged.

        Discard used coolant in a safe place and in accordance with local regulations.

        1  Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen slowly the filler cap of the coolant system to relieve

        any pressure. Remove the filler cap.

        2  Open the drain valve of the coolant system (if fitted). If the coolant system is not fitted with a drain valve,

        disconnect the lowest coolant hose.

        Allow the coolant to drain.

        How to clean the coolant system

        1  Flush the coolant system with clean water.

        2  Close the drain valve (if fitted), or connect the coolant hose used to drain the system.

        Note: To avoid air locks, fill the coolant system no faster than 19 L (4.2 UK gal) per minute.

        3  Fill the coolant system with a mixture of clean water and Holts Fast Acting Cooling System Cleaner or

        equivalent. Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions. Fit the filler cap.

        4  Start and run the engine at low idle speed for a minimum of 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should be

        at least 82 °C (180 °F).

        5  Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. Loosen the filler cap of the coolant system slowly to relieve

        any pressure. Remove the filler cap. Open the drain valve (if fitted) or disconnect the lowest coolant hose.

        Allow the cleaning mixture to drain. Flush the coolant system with clean water. Close the drain valve (if fitted),

        or connect the coolant hose used to drain the system.

        How to fill the coolant system

        1  Fill the coolant system with the correct coolant mixture, refer to "Coolant mixture" on page 49. Do not fit the

        filler cap.

        2  Start and run the engine at idle for 1 minute to eliminate air from the cavities of the engine block. Stop the

        engine.

        3  Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level at the bottom of the filler pipe in the expansion tank.

        4  Clean the filler cap of the coolant system. Inspect the gasket on the filler cap. If the gasket is damaged,

        renew the filler cap. If the gasket is not damaged, use a proprietary pressure test kit to perform a test on the

        filler cap. The correct pressure for the filler cap is stamped on its face. If the filler cap does not retain the correct

        pressure, fit a new filler cap.

        5  Start the engine. Inspect the coolant system for leaks and for correct temperature of operation.

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        How to check the tappet clearances

        Tappet clearances

        Inlet

        0,38 +/- 0,08 mm (0.015 +/- 0.003 in)

        0,76 +/- 0,08 mm (0.030 +/- 0.003 in)

        Exhaust

        The tappet clearance is measured between the rocker levers and the top of the valve bridge pieces. The

        operation must be done with the engine cold and stopped. Refer also to "How to check/adjust the electronic

        unit injectors" on page 41.

        1  Remove the rocker cover.

        2  Remove the top bolt (A1) from the cover (A2) on the flywheel housing and slacken the other cover bolt to

        allow the cover to open. The top bolt (A1) is the timing bolt.

        Caution: If a customer-fitted speed sensor is fitted to the flywheel housing, it must be removed before the

        turning tool can be inserted.

        3  Remove the plug (A3) from the timing bolt location in the flywheel housing and fit the timing bolt.

        Note: There are two locations for the timing bolt, one at each side of the flywheel housing. Use the location

        which is the most convenient.

        4  Insert the engine turning tool, CH11148, into the flywheel housing through the aperture behind the cover

        1

        (A2). Use a  /   inch drive ratchet with the turning tool to rotate the engine flywheel in the normal direction of

        2

        rotation (anti-clockwise when viewed on the flywheel) until the timing bolt engages with the threaded hole in

        the flywheel. The piston of number 1 cylinder is now at TDC (top dead centre).

        Caution: If the flywheel is turned past the threaded hole, the flywheel must be turned in the opposite direction

        for approximately 45 degrees and then back in the normal direction of rotation until the timing bolt engages

        with the threaded hole. This is to eliminate backlash.

        5  Check the inlet and exhaust valves of the number 1 cylinder. If they are fully closed the piston is on its

        compression stroke and the rocker levers can be moved by hand. If the rocker levers can not be moved

        because the valves are slightly open, the piston is on its exhaust stroke. If it is on its exhaust stroke, withdraw

        the timing bolt and turn the flywheel a further 360 degrees in the normal direction of rotation so that the number

        1 cylinder is set to TDC on its compression stroke, then insert again the timing bolt.

        Continued

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        6  Before each set of tappet clearances is adjusted, ensure that the roller of the rocker lever is fully against the

        camshaft lobe.

        7  Use a set of feeler gauges, inserted at the position shown (B3) between the valve bridge piece and the rocker

        lever button, to check the tappet clearances for the inlet valves (C1) on cylinders 1, 2 and 4. Adjust the

        clearances if necessary. Check the tappet clearance for the exhaust valves (C2) on cylinders 1, 3 and 5, and

        adjust the clearances if necessary.

        Notes:

        Move each valve bridge piece before the feeler gauge is inserted to reduce the effect of the oil film.

        During the procedure, ensure that the feeler gauge is fully inserted

        Continued

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        8  After each unit has been adjusted, tighten the lock nut (B2) of the adjustment screw (B1) to a torque of 30 +/

        - 4 Nm (22 +/- 3 lbf ft).

        9  Withdraw the timing bolt and rotate the flywheel by 360 degrees so that the number 6 piston is at TDC on

        its compression stroke. Insert again the timing bolt into the threaded hole.

        10  Check the tappet clearances for the inlet valves (C1) on cylinders 3, 5 and 6. Adjust the clearances if

        necessary. Check the tappet clearances for the exhaust valves (C2) on cylinders 2, 4 and 6, and adjust the

        clearances if necessary.

        11  After each unit has been adjusted, tighten the lock nut of the adjustment screw to a torque of 30 +/- 4 Nm

        (22 +/- 3 lbf ft).

        12  Check again the tappet clearances for all six cylinders.

        13  Fit the rocker cover. Remove the engine turning tool and the timing bolt and fit the cover to the flywheel

        housing.

        14  Fit the plug to the timing bolt location.

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        How to check/adjust the electronic unit injectors

        This operation should be performed at the same time as the operation to check the valve tappet clearances.

        Warning! The electrical circuit for the fuel injector units operates on 110 volts. Do NOT work on the fuel injector

        units unless the power supply to the ECM has been disconnected.

        1  With the rocker covers removed, set the number 1 piston to TDC (top dead centre) on its compression

        stroke. Check/adjust the height dimensions for the fuel injectors of cylinders 3, 5 and 6.

        2  Use the fuel injector setting gauge, CH11149, to obtain the correct height for the fuel injector. The dimension

        to be measured is from the top of the unit injector (A1) to the machined ledge on the fuel injector body (A2).

        This dimension should be 78,0 +/- 0,2 mm (3.07 +/- 0.01 in). Slacken the lock nut and use the adjustment screw

        of the rocker lever to obtain the correct dimension. Tighten the lock nut to a torque of 55 +/- 10 Nm (41 +/- 7

        lbf ft).

        3  Remove the timing bolt from the flywheel housing and rotate the flywheel by 360 degrees in the normal

        direction of engine rotation until the timing bolt can be inserted into the threaded hole. This will put the number

        1 piston at TDC in its exhaust stroke.

        4  Check/adjust the height dimensions for the fuel injectors of cylinders 1, 2 and 4 as given in step 2.

        5  When all adjustments have been made, remove the timing bolt, fit the cover to the flywheel housing, fit the

        plug to the timing bolt position and fit the rocker covers.

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        Engine protection devices

        The engine is fitted with an electronic management unit which monitors all critical engine temperatures and

        pressures and will stop the engine if a critical fault occurs.

        If any of the sensors fail, the diagnostics indicator will be activated and your Perkins dealer should be contacted

        so that the fault can be identified by use of the Perkins Electronic Service Tool (EST).

        Visual inspection

        Check visually the condition of all gauges, sensors and wiring. Look for wiring and components that are loose,

        broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring or components should be repaired or renewed immediately.

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        How to renew the thermostats of the coolant system

        Renew the coolant thermostats at the periods given in the service schedule. This is recommended preventive

        maintenance practice.

        Cautions:

        Failure to replace the thermostats at the periods given in the service schedule could cause severe engine

        damage.

        The engine MUST be operated with the thermostats installed. If a thermostat is fitted incorrectly the engine

        may overheat.

        1  Drain the coolant until the level is below the thermostat housing (A1).

        Caution: Certain sensors fitted to the engine have a short lead which is part of the sensor unit. For this type

        of sensor ensure that the wiring harness is disconnected from the end of the lead. Do NOT attempt to remove

        the lead from the sensor unit.

        2  Disconnect the cable (A3) from the coolant temperature sensor.

        3  Release the hose clips (A2) and disconnect the pipe and hose clip from the top of the unit.

        4  Slacken all five bolts of the thermostat housing; then remove fully the three bolts (A4) which retain the

        thermostat housing on the cylinder head.

        5  Lift carefully the assembly to separate it from the coolant bobbin (A5) at its base.

        6  Remove the two short bolts which remain, separate the two halves of the assembly and remove the

        thermostats.

        7  Clean thoroughly both parts of the assembly and check the condition of the lip-type seals. Renew the seals

        if they are worn or damaged.

        Continued

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        8  Fit the new thermostats. Ensure that the new thermostats are fitted correctly. Fit a new ‘O’ ring type seal to

        the groove in the thermostat housing, assemble the two halves of the unit and retain with two short bolts.

        9  Ensure that the mating face on the cylinder head is clean. Fit new seals to the coolant bobbin (A5) which fits

        into the base of the unit and lubricate the seals with a small amount of rubber lubricant. Fit a new ‘O’ ring type

        seal to the groove in the mating face of the housing and fit the assembly over the coolant bobbin. Fit the three

        bolts (A4) which retain the thermostat housing on the cylinder head and tighten fully all five bolts.

        10  Connect the hose to the top of the housing and tighten the hose clip (A2).

        11  Connect the cable (A3) to the coolant temperature sensor.

        12  Fill the coolant system to the correct level with the approved coolant mixture.

        13  Operate the engine until it reaches the normal temperature of operation and check for leaks. Stop the

        engine, check the coolant level and, if necessary, add extra coolant.

        Warning! Take care during removal of the filler cap as the coolant system will be under pressure.

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        How to clean and to calibrate the engine speed/timing sensors

        1  Disconnect the wiring harness and remove the two speed-timing sensors from the left side of the engine at

        the back of the gear case.

        Caution: Certain sensors fitted to the engine have a short lead which is part of the sensor unit. For this type

        of sensor ensure that the wiring harness is disconnected from the end of the lead. Do NOT attempt to remove

        the lead from the sensor unit.

        2  Check the condition of the plastic end of the sensors for wear and/or contaminants.

        3  Clean the metal shavings and other debris from the face of the sensors.

        4  Fit the sensors to the correct locations and connect the wiring harness.

        Note: If a new ECM unit has been fitted, or the engine gear train has been renewed or dismantled and

        assembled, the engine speed/timing sensors must be calibrated. Refer to engine timing calibration in the

        Diagnostic Manual.

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        How to inspect the turbocharger

        At the periods given in the service schedule, with the engine switched off and cool, disconnect and remove the

        pipe from between the air filter and the turbocharger. Turn, rapidly, the rotor assembly of the turbocharger,

        check for freedom of movement and for sounds of interference. Contact your Perkins dealer if necessary.

        Caution: Failure of the turbocharger bearings can cause large amounts of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust

        systems. Loss of engine lubricant can cause serious engine damage.

        Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low load operation should not cause problems unless

        turbocharger bearing failure has occurred.

        Caution: When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied by a significant loss in engine performance

        (exhaust smoke or engine speed up at no load), do not continue to operate the engine until the turbocharger

        has been repaired or renewed.

        Deposits must not be removed from the turbine wheels nor the compressor wheels or the balance of the

        assembly will be adversely affected.

        Check the oil supply and drain pipes for oil leaks.

        Check for air leakage when the engine is run.

        To remove and to fit the turbocharger

        Refer the Workshop Manual for details of how to remove and to fit the turbocharger.

        How to inspect the battery charging alternator

        Inspect the battery charging alternator, for loose connections. Inspect the ammeter (if fitted) during engine

        operation to ensure correct battery performance and/or correct performance of the electrical system. Clean the

        outside of the alternator and ensure that the ventilation holes are clear.

        The alternator must be checked and corrected, if necessary, by a person who has had the correct training, at

        the periods given in the service schedule.

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        How to inspect the starter motor

        Check the electrical connections of the starter motor assembly and clean them. Check the starter motor for

        correct operation.

        The starter motor must be checked and corrected, if necessary, by a person who has had the correct training,

        at the periods given in the service schedule.

        How to inspect the coolant pump

        Inspect the coolant pump for leaks. If leakage is observed, renew the coolant pump seal or the coolant pump

        assembly. Refer to the Workshop Manual for the dismantle and assembly procedures.

        Refer to the Workshop Manual or consult your Perkins dealer if any repair or replacement is needed.

        Notes:

        A small amount of leakage of coolant across the surface of the face seal in the water pump is normal. Its

        purpose is to provide lubrication for the seal.

        There is a hole in the water pump body to allow coolant to drain. Small amounts of coolant might be seen

        to leak intermittently from the drain hole during the engine operation cycle.

        Signs of a small leakage through the drain hole are not an indication that the pump is faulty. Coolant stains

        or intermittent drops of coolant from the hole, indicate normal operation of the pump.

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        2300 Series

        How to eliminate air from the fuel system

        This procedure is used normally when the engine runs out of fuel.

        1  Loosen the union of the fuel return pipe (A1). Unlock and operate the hand priming pump (A2) until fuel, free

        from air, flows from the union; this procedure will require many strokes of the pump. Use a cloth or a container

        to collect the excess fuel.

        2  Tighten the union (A1). Operate the hand priming pump until a strong pressure is felt on the pump. Push the

        priming pump plunger inward. Tighten the plunger by hand and continue immediately with the next stage.

        3  Start the engine.

        Caution: Do not crank the engine continuously for more than 30 seconds. Allow the starter motor to cool for

        two minutes before the engine is cranked again.

        4  If the engine will not start, allow the starter motor to cool for 2 minutes. Repeat steps 1 and 2 to start the

        engine. Continue to eliminate air from the fuel system if:

        The engine starts, but runs unevenly.

        The engine starts, but continues to misfire or smoke.

        5  Run the engine with no load until it runs smoothly.

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        2300 Series

        5

        Engine fluids

        5

        Fuel specification

        Diesel fuel must conform to one of these specifications:

        ASTM D975 No 1-D or No 2-D

        BS 2869: Part 2 1998 Class A2

        BS EN 590 1997

        General fuel requirements are: Maximum sulphur content 0.2%; minimum Cetane number 45.

        Fuel cleanliness

        The modern, high pressure fuel injection system used on the 2300 Series engine requires a high level of fuel

        cleanliness to ensure correct operation and reliability.

        The fuel must conform to all aspects of the ASTM D975 specification, but in particular to the requirement for

        number 2-D to have less than 0.05% water and sediment. The fuel should also be free from biological growth.

        If biological growth is suspected, contact Perkins to discuss a suitable measurement and course of action. For

        long term storage of fuel, the recommendations given in ASTM D975 must be followed where appropriate.

        The use of fuels which do not conform to the above standards can cause: difficulty with starting, poor

        combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors or combustion chamber, reduced service life of the fuel system and

        filters, reduced engine life and could affect the warranty. Further details can be obtained from the Service

        Department at Perkins Engines Company Limited, Shrewsbury.

        Coolant

        Coolant mixture

        The coolant approved for use in 2300 Series engines is a mixture of 50% heavy duty, commercially available,

        ethylene glycol antifreeze and 50% clean soft water. The antifreeze must meet ASTM D5345 or ASTM D4985

        specifications.

        A 50/50 ethylene glycol antifreeze mixture gives protection against freezing down to -35 °C. A 60% glycol mix

        gives protection down to -40 °C and should be used for Arctic conditions.

        Propylene glycol antifreeze is an acceptable alternative to ethylene glycol but only in 50/50 mixture strength,

        at which it will protect against freezing down to -29 °C.

        Caution: Mixtures containing methanol are not approved.

        If anti-freeze is not available, and the ambient temperature is not expected to fall below 10 °C, then clean soft

        water, with 1% of Perkins corrosion inhibitor (part number 21825 735 - 1 litre), may be used. This ratio is

        equivalent to 0,5 litres of corrosion inhibitor to 50 litres (11 UK gallons) of water. The use of this product should

        be controlled in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

        Water quality

        Soft water means de-ionised water, distilled water, rain water or water from a mains supply which has the

        following requirements:

        Chlorides - 40 mg/l max, sulphates - 100 mg/l max, total hardness 170 mg/l max, total solids 340 mg/l max and

        pH of 5.5 to 9.0.

        If in doubt consult the local water treatment and supply company.

        If soft water is not used, the coolant system may be affected by the formation of hard deposits which can cause

        the engine to overheat. This is especially important for engines which have coolant added frequently.

        User’s Handbook, TSD3454E, Issue 2

        49

        This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


         

        5

        2300 Series

        The use of products which are not approved for the coolant system may cause serious problems. Coolant

        mixtures with insufficient corrosion inhibitor can cause erosion and/or corrosion of coolant system

        components.

        Lubricating oil specification

        The lubricating oil used in the 2306 engine must be a 15W40 oil which conforms to the API CG-4 specification

        as a minimum. Oil produced to the higher specification, API CH-4, has greater soot handling capability and

        wear resistance leading to longer service intervals and/or engine life.

        The recommendation is therefore API CG-4 acceptable oil and API CH-4 preferred oil.

        Oil change period is 500 hours where fuel sulphur is less than 0.2%. Use of fuels having a higher sulphur level

        than this will reduce the oil life, which will have to be determined by oil analysis conducted by the customer

        and a reputable analysis service.

        Warranty

        The engine must be operated with the approved fuel, lubricant and coolant, and maintained in accordance with

        the service schedule or the warranty can become invalid.

        50

        User’s Handbook, TSD3454E, Issue 2

        This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


         

        2300 Series

        6

        Fault diagnosis

        6

        Problems and possible causes

        Possible causes

        Problem

        Checks by the workshop

        personnel

        Checks by the user

        The starter motor turns the engine too slowly

        The engine does not start

        1, 2, 3, 4

        5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13,

        14, 15, 17

        34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 43, 67

        5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,    34, 36, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44,

        The engine is difficult to start

        Not enough power

        Misfire

        14, 15, 16, 17, 19

        67

        8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16,

        8, 9, 20, 21

        34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44,

        63, 64, 66, 67

        8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 20,

        22

        34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43,

        67

        11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19,

        23, 22

        34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43,

        44, 63

        High fuel consumption

        Black exhaust smoke

        34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43,

        44, 63, 64, 67

        11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22

        36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 44, 45, 52,

        58, 61, 62

        Blue or white exhaust smoke

        4, 15, 21, 23

        The pressure of the lubricating oil system is too low

        The engine knocks

        4, 24, 25, 26

        46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 59,

        36, 37, 40, 42, 44, 46, 52, 53,

        60

        9, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23

        8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15,

        16, 18, 20, 22, 23

        The engine runs erratically

        34, 38, 40, 41, 44, 52, 60, 67

        34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 52, 54,

        67

        Vibration

        13, 18, 20, 27, 28

        The pressure of the lubricating oil system is too high

        The engine oil temperature is too high

        Crankcase pressure

        4, 25

        49

        11, 13, 15, 19, 27, 29,

        30, 32, 65

        34, 36, 37, 39, 52, 55, 56, 57,

        66

        31, 33

        39, 42, 44, 45, 52, 61

        37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 53,

        60

        Bad compression

        11, 22

        The engine starts and stops

        10, 11, 12

        67

        User’s Handbook, TSD3454E, Issue 2

        51

        This document is printed from SPI². Not for RESALE


         

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