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        珀金斯Perkins2206-E13操作保養維修

        詳細描述

        Operation and

        Maintenance

        Manual

        2206-E13 Industrial Engine

        TGB (Engine)

        TGD (Engine)

        TGF (Engine)

        Electronic Control Module 9

        The ECM controls the engine operating parameters

        through the software within the ECM and the inputs

        from the various sensors. The software within the

        ECM can be changed by installing a new flash file.

        The flash file defines the following characteristics

        of the engine:Engine power, Torque curves, Engine

        speed (rpm), Engine Noise, Smoke, and Emissions.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        29

        Operation Section

        Engine Diagnostics

        Engine Diagnostics

        i02651197

        Engine Operation with Active

        Diagnostic Codes

        i02784187

        Self-Diagnostics

        If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

        operation, the system has identified a situation that is

        not within the specification. Use the electronic service

        tool to check the active diagnostic codes.

        The electronic  control module has  some

        self-diagnostic ability. When an electronic problem

        with an input or an output is detected, a diagnostic

        code is generated. This indicates the specific problem

        with the circuitry.

        The active diagnostic code should be investigated.

        The cause of the problem should be corrected as

        soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic

        code is repaired  and there is only one  active

        diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.

        A diagnostic code which represents a problem that

        currently exists is called an active code.

        A diagnostic code that is stored in memory is called

        a logged code. Always service active codes prior to

        servicing logged codes. Logged codes may indicate

        intermittent problems.

        Operation of the engine and  performance of the

        engine can be limited  as a result of the  active

        diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates

        may be significantly slower and power outputs may

        be automatically reduced. Refer to Troubleshooting

        , “Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code” for more

        information on the relationship between each active

        diagnostic code and the possible effect on engine

        performance.

        Logged codes may not  indicate that a repair is

        needed. The problems may have been repaired since

        the logging of the code. Logged codes may be helpful

        to troubleshoot intermittent problems.

        i02572812

        i02784585

        Engine Operation  with

        Diagnostic Lamp

        Intermittent Diagnostic Codes

        The “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp is used to  indicate the

        existence of an active fault.

        If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine

        operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts OFF,  an

        intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has

        occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of

        the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

        A fault diagnostic code will remain active until  the

        problem is repaired.

        i02784192

        Fault Logging

        In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine

        because of an intermittent  code. However, the

        operator should retrieve the  logged fault codes

        and the operator should reference the appropriate

        information in order to identify the nature of the fault.

        The operator should log any observation that could

        have caused the lamp to light.

        The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.

        When the Electronic  Control Module (ECM)

        generates an active diagnostic code, the code will

        be logged in the memory of the ECM. The Perkins

        electronic service tool can retrieve codes that have

        been logged. The codes that have been logged can

        be cleared with the Perkins electronic service tool.

        The codes that have been logged  in the memory

        of the ECM will be automatically cleared from  the

        memory after 100 hours.

        •  Low power

        •  Limits of the engine speed

        •  Excessive smoke, etc

        This information can be useful to help troubleshoot

        the situation. The information can also be used for

        future reference. For more information on diagnostic

        codes, refer to the Troubleshooting guide  for this

        engine.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        30

        SEBU8337

        Operation Section

        Engine Starting

        Engine Starting

        i02583442

        Starting the Engine

        i02773196

        Before Starting Engine

        Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during

        start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will

        control the engine speed during start-up.

        Before the engine is started, perform the  required

        daily maintenance  and any other  periodic

        maintenance that is due. Refer  to the Operation

        and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

        Schedule” for more information.

        New engines

        Prime the turbocharger. This can be achieved  by

        cranking the engine briefly with no fuel.

        •   Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).

        If necessary, stop a new engine  if an overspeed

        condition occurs. If necessary, press the Emergency

        Stop button.

        NOTICE

        All valves in the fuel return  line must be open before

        and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel

        pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing

        failure or other damage.

        Starting the Engine

        1.  Move the ignition switch to the ON position. If a

        system fault is indicated, investigate the cause. If

        necessary, use the Perkins electronic service tool.

        If the engine has not been started for several weeks,

        fuel may have drained from  the fuel system. Air

        may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel

        filters have been changed, some air pockets will be

        trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the

        fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance

        Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information

        on priming the fuel system.

        2.  Push the start button or turn the keyswitch to the

        START position in order to crank the engine.

        3.  If the engine fails to start  within 30 seconds,

        release the start button or the ignition switch. Wait

        for 30 seconds in order to allow the starting motor

        to cool before attempting to start the engine again.

        Note: A system fault may  be indicated after the

        engine is started. If this occurs the ECM has detected

        a problem with the system. If  necessary, use the

        Perkins Service Tool to investigate the problem.

        Engine exhaust contains products of combustion

        which may be harmful to your health. Always start

        and operate  the engine  in a well  ventilated area

        and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the

        outside.

        Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15  seconds

        after the engine starts. The engine electronic controls

        monitor the engine oil  pressure. The electronic

        controls will stop the engine if  the oil pressure is

        below normal.

        •  Do not start the engine or move any of the controls

        if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or

        similar warning tag attached to the start switch or

        to the controls.

        4.  When possible, allow the engine to run at no load

        for approximately three minutes. Run the engine

        at no load until the  water temperature gauge

        has started to rise. Check all gauges during the

        warm-up period.

        •  Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if

        equipped).

        •  Ensure that any equipment that is driven  by the

        engine has been disengaged from the  engine.

        Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical

        loads.

        •  Ensure that the coolant level is correct.

        •  Ensure that the engine oil level is correct.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        31

        Operation Section

        Engine Starting

        i02815193

        4.  Operate the engine at no load until all the coolant

        temperature starts to rise. Check  the gauges

        during the warm-up period.

        Cold Weather Starting

        Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should

        be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do

        not apply a load to the engine until the oil pressure

        gauge indicates at least normal pressure. Inspect the

        engine for leaks and/or unusual noises.

        Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

        ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

        personal injury.

        Note: After the ECM has completed the cold mode,

        cold mode cannot be enabled again until the ECM is

        switched OFF.

        The engine will start at  a temperature of −10 °C

        (14 °F). The ability to start at temperatures  below

        10 °C (50 °F) will improve by the use of  a cylinder

        block coolant heater or a device  which heats the

        crankcase oil. This will help to reduce white smoke

        and misfires when the  engine is started in cold

        weather.

        Note: Do not attempt to restart the engine until the

        engine has completely stopped.

        i02428473

        Starting with  Jump Start

        Cables

        If the engine has not been run for several weeks, fuel

        may have drained. Air may have moved into the filter

        housing. Also, when fuel filters have been changed,

        some air will be left in the  filter housing. Refer to

        Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System -

        Prime” in order to remove air from the fuel system.

        Do not use jump start cables in  order to start the

        engine. Charge the batteries or replace the batteries.

        Refer to Operation  and Maintenance Manual,

        “Battery - Replace”.

        Use the procedure that follows  for cold weather

        starting.

        NOTICE

        Do not  engage the  starting motor  when  flywheel is

        turning. Do not start the engine under load.

        If the engine fails  to start within 30 seconds, release

        the starter switch or button and wait thirty seconds to

        allow the starting  motor to cool  before attempting to

        start the engine again.

        1.  If equipped, press the start button. If equipped,

        turn the keyswitch to the START position in order

        to engage the electric starting motor and crank

        the engine.

        2.  Repeat step 1 three times if the engine fails to

        start.

        3.  If the engine fails to start, investigate the problem.

        Use the Perkins electronic service tool. A system

        fault may be indicated after the engine is started. If

        this occurs the ECM has detected a problem with

        the system. Investigate the cause of the problem.

        Use the Perkins electronic service tool.

        Note: Oil pressure should rise within 15  seconds

        after the engine starts. The electronic engine controls

        monitor the oil pressure. The electronic controls will

        stop the engine if the oil pressure is below normal.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        32

        SEBU8337

        Operation Section

        Engine Starting

        i01646248

        After Starting Engine

        Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),

        the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In

        temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up

        time may be required.

        Note: Ensure that the self test  for the monitoring

        system (if equipped) is completed before operating

        the engine under load.

        When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the

        following conditions:

        •  Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm

        and at one-half full rpm (no load on the  engine)

        before operating the engine under load. This is not

        possible in some applications.

        •  Operate the engine at low idle until  all systems

        achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges

        during the warm-up period.

        Note: Gauge readings should be  observed and

        the data should be recorded frequently  while the

        engine is operating. Comparing the data over time

        will help to determine  normal readings for each

        gauge. Comparing data over time  will also help

        detect abnormal operating developments. Significant

        changes in the readings should be investigated.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        33

        Operation Section

        Engine Operation

        Engine Operation

        i02583385

        Fuel Conservation Practices

        i02578030

        Engine Operation

        The efficiency of the  engine can affect the fuel

        economy. Perkins design  and technology in

        manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in

        all applications. Follow the recommended procedures

        in order to attain optimum performance for the life

        of the engine.

        Correct operation and maintenance are key factors

        in obtaining the maximum  life and economy of

        the engine. If the directions in  the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can  be

        minimized and engine service life can be maximized.

        •  Avoid spilling fuel.

        Gauge readings should be observed and the data

        should be recorded frequently  while the engine

        is operating. Comparing the  data over time will

        help to determine normal readings for each gauge.

        Comparing data over time  will also help detect

        abnormal operating developments. Significant

        changes in the readings should be investigated.

        Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel

        may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for

        leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

        •  Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.

        Use only the recommended fuels.

        •  Avoid unnecessary operation at no load.

        Shut off the engine instead of operating the engine

        at no load for long periods of time.

        •  Observe the service indicator for the air cleaner

        frequently, if equipped. Keep  the air cleaner

        elements clean.

        •  Maintain a good electrical system.

        One bad battery cell will overwork the alternator. This

        will consume excess power and excess fuel.

        •  Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The

        belts should be in good condition.

        •  Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are

        tight. The connections should not leak.

        •  Ensure that the driven  equipment is in good

        working order.

        •  Cold engines consume excess fuel. Keep cooling

        system components clean  and keep cooling

        system components in good repair. Never operate

        the engine without water temperature regulators.

        All of these items will  help maintain operating

        temperatures.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        34

        SEBU8337

        Operation Section

        Engine Stopping

        Engine Stopping

        i02583411

        After Stopping Engine

        i02572824

        Manual Stop Procedure

        Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate

        the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow

        the engine oil to return to the oil pan.

        Stopping the Engine

        •  Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level

        between the “LOW” mark and the “HIGH” mark on

        the oil level gauge.

        NOTICE

        Stopping  the engine  immediately  after it  has  been

        working under load, can result in overheating and ac-

        celerated wear of the engine components.

        Note: Only use  oil that is  recommended in

        this Operation and Maintenance Manual,  “Fluid

        Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended

        oil may result in engine damage.

        Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down.

        Avoiding  hot  engine  shutdowns  will  maximize  tur-

        bocharger shaft and bearing life.

        •  If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

        any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

        •  Note the service hour meter  reading. Perform

        the maintenance that is  in the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

        Schedule”.

        Note: Individual applications will  have different

        control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures

        are understood. Use the following general guidelines

        in order to stop the engine.

        •  Fill the fuel  tank in order  to help prevent

        accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill

        the fuel tank.

        1.  Remove the load from the engine.  Allow the

        engine to run under no load conditions  for five

        minutes in order to cool the engine.

        •  Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

        Maintain the cooling system at 13 mm (0.5 inch)

        from the bottom of the pipe for filling.

        2.  Stop the engine after the  cool down period

        according to the shutoff system on the engine and

        turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position.

        If necessary, refer to the  instructions that are

        provided by the OEM.

        Note: Only use coolant that  is recommended in

        this Operation and Maintenance Manual,  “Fluid

        Recommendations”. Failure to use the recommended

        oil may result in engine damage.

        Emergency Stopping

        •  If freezing temperatures are  expected, check

        the coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The

        cooling system must be protected against freezing

        to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add

        the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

        NOTICE

        Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use

        ONLY. DO  NOT  use emergency  shutoff devices  or

        controls for normal stopping procedure.

        •  Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

        driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in

        the instructions from the OEM.

        The OEM may have equipped the application with

        an emergency stop button. For more  information

        about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM

        information.

        Ensure that any components for the external system

        that support the engine operation are secured after

        the engine is stopped.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        35

        Operation Section

        Cold Weather Operation

        Cold Weather Operation

        Personal  injury  or property  damage  can  result

        from alcohol or starting fluids.

        i02581613

        Cold Weather Operation

        Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and

        toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury

        or property damage.

        Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in

        cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and

        the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on

        the following items:

        Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as

        ether. Such use could  result in an explosion and

        personal injury.

        •  The type of fuel that is used

        •  The viscosity of the engine oil

        •  Optional Cold starting aid

        •  Battery condition

        Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication

        Oil

        Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity

        affects the amount  of torque that  is needed

        to crank the  engine. Refer to Operation  and

        Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for

        the recommended viscosity of oil.

        The operation and maintenance of  an engine in

        freezing temperatures is complex . This is because

        of the following conditions:

        •  Weather conditions

        •  Engine applications

        Recommendations for the Coolant

        Provide cooling system protection for  the lowest

        expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation

        and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”

        for the recommended coolant mixture.

        Recommendations from your Perkins distributor are

        based on past proven practices. The information that

        is contained in this section provides guidelines for

        cold weather operation.

        In cold weather, check the  coolant often for the

        correct glycol concentration in  order to ensure

        adequate freeze protection.

        Hints for Cold Weather Operation

        •  If the engine will start, operate the engine until a

        minimum operating temperature of 81 °C (177.8 °F)

        is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will

        help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves

        from sticking.

        Engine Block Heaters

        Engine block heaters  (if equipped) heat the

        engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion

        chambers. This provides the following functions:

        •  The cooling system and the lubrication  system

        for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon

        shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut

        down for a period of time and the engine can still

        have the ability to start readily.

        •  Startability is improved.

        An electric block heater  can be activated once

        the engine is stopped. An effective block heater is

        typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your Perkins

        distributor for more information.

        •  Install the correct specification of engine lubricant

        before the beginning of cold weather.

        •  Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)

        weekly.

        •  Check all electrical wiring and connections for any

        fraying or damaged insulation.

        •  Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.

        •  Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        36

        SEBU8337

        Operation Section

        Cold Weather Operation

        i02576035

        •  A lower energy per unit volume of fuel

        Fuel and the Effect from Cold

        Weather

        Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The

        use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins

        warranty.

        Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and

        Aviation Kerosene Fuels.

        Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended

        by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

        Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

        Special fuels include Biofuel.

        The cloud point is a temperature  that allows wax

        crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause

        the fuel filters to plug.

        The following fuels can be  used in this series of

        engine.

        •  Group 1

        The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel

        will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant

        to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.

        •  Group 2

        •  Group 3

        Be aware of  these facts when  diesel fuel is

        purchased. Consider the average  ambient air

        temperature for the engine’s application. Engines

        that are fueled in one climate may not operate well if

        the engines are moved to another climate. Problems

        can result due to changes in temperature.

        •  Special Fuels

        Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for

        use in this series of engines.

        Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for

        general use by Perkins. Group 1  fuels maximize

        engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels

        are usually less  available than Group 2 fuels.

        Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder

        climates during the winter.

        Before troubleshooting for low power  or for poor

        performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.

        Low temperature fuels may be available for engine

        operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These

        fuels limit the formation of  wax in the fuel at low

        temperatures.

        Note: Group 2 fuels must have a  maximum wear

        scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).

        For more information on cold weather operation, refer

        to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold

        Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in

        Cold Weather”.

        Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues

        of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life

        of the engine, the engine’s maximum power, and the

        engine’s fuel efficiency.

        When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the  following

        components provide a means of minimizing problems

        in cold weather:

        •  Glow plugs (if equipped)

        •  Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM

        option

        •  Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option

        •  Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option

        There are three major differences between Group

        1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels  have the

        following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.

        •  A lower cloud point

        •  A lower pour point

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        37

        Operation Section

        Cold Weather Operation

        i02583420

        Fuel Related Components in

        Cold Weather

        Fuel Tanks

        Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.

        Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

        Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining

        water and sediment from the bottom of the  tanks.

        Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water

        and sediment to settle below  the end of the fuel

        supply pipe.

        Some fuel tanks use  supply lines that take fuel

        directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is

        equipped with this system, regular maintenance of

        the fuel system filter is important.

        Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage

        tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,

        and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent

        water and/or sediment from being pumped from the

        fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.

        Fuel Filters

        A primary fuel filter is  installed between the fuel

        tank and the engine fuel  inlet. After you change

        the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order

        to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer

        to the Operation and Maintenance Manual  in the

        Maintenance Section for more information on priming

        the fuel system.

        The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel

        filter is important in cold  weather operation. The

        primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most

        common components that are affected by cold fuel.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        38

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Maintenance Section

        i03040206

        Fluid Recommendations

        Refill Capacities

        Cooling System Specifications

        i02793514

        Refill Capacities

        General Coolant Information

        NOTICE

        Never add coolant  to an overheated  engine. Engine

        damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.

        Lubrication System

        The refill capacities  for the engine crankcase

        NOTICE

        reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase

        or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary  oil filter

        systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM

        specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

        Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,

        “Maintenance Section” for more  information on

        Lubricant Specifications.

        If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped  to an area

        with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system

        must be either protected to the lowest outside temper-

        ature or drained completely to prevent damage.

        NOTICE

        Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for

        proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

        Table 3

        Engine

        Refill Capacities

        Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:

        •  Contamination of the cooling system

        •  Overheating of the engine

        Compartment or System

        Crankcase Oil Sump

        Maximum

        (1)

        40 L (8.8 Imp gal)

        (1)  These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase

        oil sump (aluminum) which  includes the standard factory

        installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require

        additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity

        of the auxiliary oil filter.

        •  Foaming of the coolant

        NOTICE

        Cooling System

        Never operate  an engine without  water temperature

        regulators in the  cooling system. Water  temperature

        regulators help to maintain  the engine coolant at the

        proper operating temperature.  Cooling system prob-

        lems can develop  without water temperature regula-

        tors.

        Refer to the OEM specifications  for the External

        System capacity. This capacity information will be

        needed in order to determine the amount of coolant

        that is required for the Total Cooling System.

        Table 4

        Many engine failures are  related to the cooling

        system. The following problems are related to cooling

        system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water

        pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.

        Engine

        Refill Capacities

        Compartment or System

        Engine Only

        External System Per OEM

        Liters

        15  L

        (3.3 Imp gal)

        These failures can be avoided with correct cooling

        system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is

        as important as maintenance of the fuel system and

        the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as

        important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating

        oil.

        25.5  L

        (5.6 Imp gal)

        (1)

        (1)  The External System includes a radiator  or an expansion

        tank with the following  components: heat exchanger and

        piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the

        capacity of the External System in this row.

        Coolant is normally composed of three elements:

        Water, additives, and glycol.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        39

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Water

        •  Formation of gel compounds

        •  Reduction of heat transfer

        Water is used in  the cooling system in order to

        transfer heat.

        •  Leakage of the water pump seal

        Distilled water  or deionized  water is

        recommended for use in engine cooling systems.

        •  Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages

        DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling

        systems: Hard water, softened water that has been

        conditioned with salt, and sea water.

        Glycol

        Glycol in the coolant helps  to provide protection

        against the following conditions:

        If distilled water or deionized water is not available,

        use water with the properties that are listed in Table 5.

        •  Boiling

        Table 5

        •  Freezing

        Acceptable Water

        •  Cavitation of the water pump

        Property

        Chloride (Cl)

        Sulfate (SO4)

        Total Hardness

        Total Solids

        Acidity

        Maximum Limit

        40 mg/L

        For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a

        1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.

        100 mg/L

        170 mg/L

        Note: Use a mixture that  will provide protection

        against the lowest ambient temperature.

        340 mg/L

        pH of  5.5 to 9.0

        Note: 100 percent pure  glycol will freeze at  a

        temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).

        For a water analysis, consult one of  the following

        sources:

        Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.

        Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture

        with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide

        similar protection against freezing and boiling. See

        Tables 6 and 7.

        •  Local water utility company

        •  Agricultural agent

        Table 6

        •  Independent laboratory

        Ethylene Glycol

        Additives

        Freeze

        Protection

        Boil

        Protection

        Concentration

        Additives help to protect  the metal surfaces of

        the cooling system. A lack of coolant  additives or

        insufficient amounts of additives enable the following

        conditions to occur:

        50 Percent

        60 Percent

        −36 °C (−33 °F)   106 °C (223 °F)

        −51 °C (−60 °F)   111 °C (232 °F)

        NOTICE

        •  Corrosion

        Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-

        ceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol’s

        reduced heat transfer capability.  Use ethylene glycol

        in conditions that require additional protection against

        boiling or freezing.

        •  Formation of mineral deposits

        •  Rust

        •  Scale

        Table 7

        •  Foaming of the coolant

        Propylene Glycol

        Many additives are depleted during engine operation.

        These additives must be replaced periodically.

        Freeze

        Protection

        Anti-Boil

        Protection

        Concentration

        50 Percent

        −29 °C (−20 °F)     106 °C (223 °F)

        Additives must be added at the correct concentration.

        Overconcentration of additives  can cause the

        inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can

        enable the following problems to occur:

        To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,

        measure the specific gravity of the coolant.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        40

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Coolant Recommendations

        Extended Life Coolant (ELC)

        The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel

        engines:

        Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for

        use in the following applications:

        Preferred  – Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC)

        •  Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines

        •  Heavy-duty diesel engines

        •  Automotive applications

        Acceptable  – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze

        that meets “ASTM D4985” specifications

        NOTICE

        The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from

        the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC

        is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC

        contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam

        agents with low amounts of  nitrite. Perkins ELC

        has been formulated with the  correct amount of

        these additives in order to provide superior corrosion

        protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.

        Do not use  a commercial coolant/antifreeze that  on-

        ly meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This  type of

        coolant/antifreeze is made for  light automotive appli-

        cations.

        Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of  water and

        glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide

        optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.

        This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if

        extra freezing protection is required.

        ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed  solution . The

        Premixed ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C

        (−33 °F). The Premixed ELC is recommended for the

        initial fill of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is

        also recommended for topping off the cooling system.

        Note: A commercial heavy-duty  antifreeze that

        meets “ASTM D4985” specifications MAY require a

        treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label

        or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of

        the product.

        ELC Concentrate is also available. ELC Concentrate

        can be used to lower the freezing point  to −51 °C

        (−60 °F) for arctic conditions.

        In stationary engine applications and marine engine

        applications that do not require anti-boil protection

        or freeze protection, a mixture of  SCA and water

        is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent

        to eight percent concentration  of SCA in those

        cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water

        is preferred. Water which has the  recommended

        properties may be used.

        Containers of several sizes are available. Consult

        your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the

        part numbers.

        ELC Cooling System Maintenance

        Correct additions to the Extended Life

        Coolant

        Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature

        above 43 °C (109.4 °F) must use SCA and water.

        Engines that operate in an  ambient temperature

        above 43 °C (109.4 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) due

        to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer

        or your Perkins distributor for the  correct level of

        protection.

        NOTICE

        Use only Perkins  products for pre-mixed  or concen-

        trated coolants.

        Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products re-

        duces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to

        follow the recommendations can reduce cooling  sys-

        tem components life unless appropriate corrective ac-

        tion is performed.

        Table 8

        Coolant Service  Life

        Coolant Type

        Service Life

        6,000 Service Hours  or

        Three Years

        Perkins ELC

        In order to maintain the correct balance  between

        the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain

        the recommended concentration of Extended Life

        Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of antifreeze

        lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the

        ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting,

        from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.

        Commercial Heavy-Duty

        Antifreeze that meets

        “ASTM D4985”

        3000 Service Hours  or

        Two Years

        Perkins POWERPART

        SCA

        3000 Service Hours  or

        Two Years

        Commercial SCA and

        Water

        3000 Service Hours  or

        Two Years

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        41

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        6.  Fill the cooling system with clean  water and

        operate the engine until the engine is warmed to

        49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).

        NOTICE

        Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling

        system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).

        NOTICE

        Do not  use  standard supplemental  coolant additive

        (SCA).

        Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system

        can result in damage to copper and other metal com-

        ponents.

        When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA’s

        or SCA filters.

        To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to

        completely flush the cooling system  with clear water.

        Continue to flush the system until  all the signs of the

        cleaning agent are gone.

        ELC Cooling System Cleaning

        Note: If the cooling system is already using  ELC,

        cleaning agents are not  required to be used at

        the specified coolant change  interval. Cleaning

        agents are only required if the  system has been

        contaminated by the addition of some other type of

        coolant or by cooling system damage.

        7.  Drain the cooling system into a suitable container

        and flush the cooling system with clean water.

        Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly

        flushed from the cooling system. Cooling  system

        cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the

        coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling

        system.

        Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required

        when ELC is drained from the cooling system.

        After the cooling system is drained  and after the

        cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while

        the cooling system filler cap is removed.  Operate

        the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal

        operating temperature and until the coolant  level

        stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant  mixture in

        order to fill the system to the specified level.

        8.  Repeat Steps 6 and  7 until the system  is

        completely clean.

        9.  Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed

        ELC.

        ELC Cooling System Contamination

        Changing to Perkins ELC

        NOTICE

        Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effective-

        ness of  the ELC and  shortens the  ELC service life.

        Use only  Perkins Products  for premixed or  concen-

        trate coolants.  Failure to follow  these recommenda-

        tions can result  in shortened cooling system compo-

        nent life.

        To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins

        ELC, perform the following steps:

        NOTICE

        Care  must  be  taken  to  ensure  that  all  fluids  are

        contained  during  performance of  inspection,  main-

        tenance,  testing,  adjusting   and  the  repair  of   the

        product. Be prepared to collect the  fluid with suitable

        containers before  opening any  compartment or  dis-

        assembling any component containing fluids.

        ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to

        a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty

        antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten

        percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of

        the following procedures:

        Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

        mandates.

        •  Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.

        Dispose of the  coolant according to  local

        regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill

        the system with the Perkins ELC.

        1.  Drain the coolant into a suitable container.

        2.  Dispos, e of the coolant  according to local

        regulations.

        •  Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable

        container according to local regulations. Then, fill

        the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should

        lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.

        3.  Flush the system with clean water in  order to

        remove any debris.

        4.  Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow

        the instruction on the label.

        •  Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty

        Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change

        the coolant at the interval that is recommended for

        the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.

        5.  Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush

        the cooling system with clean water.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        42

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and

        SCA

        Table 11 is an example for using the equation that

        is in Table 10.

        Table 11

        NOTICE

        Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To

        The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial  Fill

        Commercial   Heavy-Duty  Coolant   which   contains

        Amine as part of the corrision protection system must

        not be used.

        Total Volume

        of the Cooling

        System (V)

        Multiplication

        Factor

        Amount of SCA

        that is Required

        (X)

        NOTICE

        Never operate  an engine without  water temperature

        regulators in the  cooling system. Water  temperature

        regulators help to maintain  the engine coolant at the

        correct operating temperature. Cooling  system prob-

        lems can develop  without water temperature regula-

        tors.

        15 L (4 US gal)

        × 0.045

        0.7 L (24 oz)

        Adding The SCA to  The Heavy-Duty

        Coolant For Maintenance

        Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic

        additions of an SCA.

        Check the antifreeze  (glycol concentration) in

        order to ensure adequate protection against boiling

        or freezing. Perkins recommends  the use of a

        refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.

        Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration

        of SCA. For the  interval, refer to the Operation

        and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

        Schedule” (Maintenance  Section). Test the

        concentration of SCA.

        Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested

        at 500 hour  intervals for the concentration of

        Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA).

        Additions of SCA are based on the  results of the

        test. The size of the cooling system determines the

        amount of SCA that is needed.

        Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.

        An SCA that is liquid may be needed  at 500 hour

        intervals.

        Use the equation that is in Table 12 to determine the

        amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:

        Refer to Table 9 for part numbers and for quantities

        of SCA.

        Table 12

        Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty

        Coolant For  Maintenance

        Table 9

        Perkins Liquid  SCA

        V ×  0.014 =  X

        Part Number

        Quantity

        V is the total volume of the cooling system.

        X is the amount of SCA that is required.

        21825755

        .

        Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant

        at the Initial Fill

        Table 13 is an example for using the equation that

        is in Table 12.

        Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets “ASTM

        D4985” specifications MAY require an addition of

        SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions

        that are provided by the OEM of the product.

        Table 13

        Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To

        The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance

        Total Volume

        of the Cooling

        System (V)

        Multiplication

        Factor

        Amount of SCA

        that is Required

        (X)

        Use the equation that is in Table 10 to determine the

        amount of Perkins SCA that is required when  the

        cooling system is initially filled.

        15 L (4 US gal)

        × 0.014

        0.2 L (7 oz)

        Table 10

        Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty

        Coolant At  The Initial Fill

        V ×  0.045 =  X

        V is the total volume of the cooling system.

        X is the amount of SCA that is required.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        43

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Cleaning the System  of Heavy-Duty

        Antifreeze

        NOTICE

        These recommendations are subject to change  with-

        out notice.  Contact your local  Perkins distributor  for

        the most up to date recommendations.

        Perkins cooling system cleaners  are designed

        to clean the  cooling system of harmful  scale

        and corrosion. Perkins cooling system  cleaners

        dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil

        contamination and sludge.

        Diesel Fuel Requirements

        •  Clean the cooling system after used  coolant is

        drained or before the cooling system is filled with

        new coolant.

        Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on

        the use of a good quality fuel.  The use of a good

        quality fuel will give the following results: long engine

        life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The

        fuel must meet the minimum requirements that are

        stated in table 14.

        •  Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is

        contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.

        NOTICE

        i03040204

        Fluid Recommendations

        (Fuel Specification)

        The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specifica-

        tion for Distillate  Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of  the

        footnotes.

        •  Glossary

        •  ISO International Standards Organization

        •  ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

        •  HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating  Rig for

        Lubricity testing of diesel fuels

        •  FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

        •  CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research

        •  LSD Low Sulfur Diesel

        •  ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel

        •  RME Rape Methyl Ester

        •  SME Soy Methyl Ester

        •  EPA Environmental Protection Agency  of the

        United States

        General Information

        NOTICE

        Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up to date

        information. By use  of this document you  agree that

        Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible

        for errors or omissions.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        44

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Table 14

        Perkins Specification  for Distillate Diesel  Fuel

        (1)

        Property

        Aromatics

        Ash

        UNITS

        Requirements

        35% maximum

        0.01% maximum

        0.35% maximum

        “ASTM”Test

        D1319

        “ISO”Test

        “ISO”3837

        “ISO”6245

        “ISO”4262

        %Volume

        %Weight

        %Weight

        D482

        Carbon Residue on

        10% Bottoms

        D524

        Cetane Number

        Cloud Point

        (2)

        -

        40 minimum

        D613/D6890

        D2500

        “ISO”5165

        “ISO”3015

        °C

        The cloud point must

        not exceed the lowest

        expected ambient

        temperature.

        -

        Copper  Strip

        Corrosion

        No. 3 maximum

        D130

        “ISO”2160

        Density at  15 °C

        (59 °F)

        Kg / M

        °C

        3

        801 minimum and 876

        maximum

        No equivalent test

        D86

        “ISO 3675 ”“ISO 12185”

        “ISO”3405

        (3)

        Distillation

        10%  at 282  °C

        (539.6 °F) maximum

        90% at 360 °C (680 °F)

        maximum

        Flash Point

        °C

        -

        legal limit

        D93

        “ISO”2719

        Thermal Stability

        Minimum of  80%

        reflectance after aging

        for 180  minutes at

        150 °C (302 °F)

        D6468

        No equivalent test

        Pour Point

        °C

        6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum

        below  ambient

        D97

        “ISO”3016

        temperature

        Sulfur

        (1)(4)

        %mass

        1% maximum

        D5453/D26222

        D445

        “ISO 20846 ”“ISO 20884”

        “ISO”3405

        Kinematic Viscosity

        (5)

        “MM”

        2

        “/S (cSt)”

        The viscosity of  the

        fuel that is delivered to

        the fuel injection pump.

        “1.4 minimum/4.5

        maximum”

        Water and sediment

        Water

        % weight

        % weight

        % weight

        0.1% maximum

        0.1% maximum

        0.05% maximum

        D1796

        D1744

        D473

        “ISO”3734

        No equivalent test

        “ISO”3735

        Sediment

        (continued)

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        45

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        (Table 14, contd)

        Gums and Resins

        (6)

        mg/100mL

        mm

        10 mg  per 100 mL

        maximum

        D381

        “ISO”6246

        Lubricity corrected

        0.52 maximum

        D6079

        “ISO”12156-1

        wear scar diameter at

        60 °C (140 °F).

        (7)

        (1)  This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to

        “ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO  20884” test methods. This specification includes the requirements for Low Sulfur

        Diesel (LSD). LSD fuel will have ≤500 ppm (0.05%) sulfur. Refer to following:“ASTM 5453, ASTM D2622”,  “ISO 20846”, and “ISO 20884

        test methods”.

        (2)  A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.

        (3)  “Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801  kg / m

        3

        (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for  the

        maximum density of 876 kg  / m  is 30”.

        3

        (4)  Regional regulations, national regulations or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable

        regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulfur

        fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions.  High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion  of internal components.

        Fuel sulfur levels above 0.5% may significantly  shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to this manual, “Fluid

        recommendations (General lubricant Information)”.

        (5)  The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the  fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum

        viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity  requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test

        method or the “ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel  with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain  1.4 cSt or

        greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels  with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower  the viscosity to 4.5

        cSt at the fuel  injection pump.

        (6)  Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline  (motor).

        (7)  The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low  sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1

        or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating  Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet  the minimum requirements,

        consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel  supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives

        can cause problems in the  fuel system.

        Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause

        of problems during cold start.

        NOTICE

        Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins rec-

        ommendations can cause the following effects: Start-

        ing difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel in-

        jectors, reduced  service life  of the  fuel system,  de-

        posits in the  combustion chamber, and reduced ser-

        vice life of the engine.

        Viscosity

        Viscosity is the  property of a liquid of  offering

        resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with

        increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity

        follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil

        fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.

        This is the quotient of the dynamic viscosity that is

        divided by the density. The determination of kinematic

        viscosity is normally by readings from gravity flow

        viscometers at standard temperatures. Refer to “ISO

        3104” for the test method.

        Diesel Fuel Characteristics

        Perkins Recommendation

        Cetane Number

        The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel

        serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.

        Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to lubricate

        the fuel system in both extremely cold temperatures

        and extremely hot temperatures. If the  kinematic

        viscosity of the fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel

        injection pump damage to the fuel injection pump

        can occur. This damage can be excessive scuffing

        and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to difficult hot

        restarting, stalling and loss of performance.  High

        viscosity may result in seizure of the pump.

        Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter

        ignition delay. This will produce  a better ignition

        quality. Cetane numbers are derived for fuels against

        proportions of cetane and heptamethylnonane in the

        standard CFR engine. Refer to “ISO 5165” for the

        test method.

        Cetane numbers in  excess of 45 are normally

        expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane

        number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.

        The United States of America is one of the territories

        that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane

        value of 40 is  required during average starting

        conditions. A higher cetane value may be required

        for operations at high altitudes or in  cold weather

        operations.

        Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and

        4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the  fuel injection

        pump.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        46

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Density

        Lubricity

        Density is the mass  of the fuel per unit volume

        at a specific temperature. This  parameter has a

        direct influence on engine performance and a direct

        influence on emissions. This determines the heat

        output from a given injected volume  of fuel. This

        is generally quoted in the following kg/m at  15 °C

        (59 °F).

        This is the capability of the  fuel to prevent pump

        wear. The fluid’s lubricity describes the ability of the

        fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are

        under load. This ability reduces the damage that is

        caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the

        lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits

        were mandated, the fuel’s lubricity was  generally

        believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.

        Perkins recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m

        in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter

        fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce

        the rated power.

        The lubricity has particular significance to the current

        low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel and low aromatic

        fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order  to meet

        stringent exhaust emissions. A  test method for

        measuring the lubricity of  diesel fuels has been

        developed and the test  is based on the HFRR

        method that is operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to

        “ISO 12156 part 1 and CEC document F06-A-96” for

        the test method.

        Sulfur

        The level of  sulfur is governed by  emissions

        legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations

        or international regulations can require a fuel with

        a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel

        and the fuel quality must comply with all existing local

        regulations for emissions.

        Lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch)

        MUST NOT be exceeded. The fuel lubricity test must

        be performed on a HFRR, operated at 60 °C (140 °F).

        Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.

        By using the test methods “ASTM D5453,  ASTM

        D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884”,  the content of

        sulfur in low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel must be below

        500 PPM 0.05%. By using the test methods “ASTM

        D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO 20884”, the

        content of sulfur in ultra low sulfur (ULSD) fuel must

        be below 15 PPM 0.0015%. The use of LSD fuel and

        the use of ULSD fuel are acceptable provided that the

        fuels meet the minimum requirements that are stated

        in table 14. The lubricity  of these fuels must not

        exceed wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch).

        The fuel lubricity test must be performed on a HFRR,

        operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”.

        Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of  a fuel.

        Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances

        when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier

        can make recommendations for additives to  use

        and for the proper  level of treatment. For more

        information, refer to “Fuel Additive”.

        Distillation

        This is an indication  of the mixture of different

        hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight

        hydrocarbons can affect the  characteristics of

        combustion.

        In some parts of the world and for some applications,

        high sulfur fuels above 0.5% by  mass might only

        be available. Fuel with  very high sulfur content

        can cause engine wear. High sulfur fuel will  have

        a negative impact on  emissions of particulates.

        High sulfur fuel can be used provided that the local

        emissions legislation will allow the use. High sulfur

        fuel can be used in countries that do  not regulate

        emissions.

        Classification of the Fuels

        Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety

        of fuels. These fuels are divided into  four general

        groups: Ref to table 15

        When only high sulfur  fuels are available, it will

        be necessary that high alkaline  lubricating oil is

        used in the engine or that the lubricating oil change

        interval is reduced. Refer  to this Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Fliud Recommendations

        (Genernal Lubrication Information)” for information

        on sulfur in fuel.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        47

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Table 15

        •  “MIL-DTL-5624U NATO F44 (JP-5)”

        Fuel Groups

        Group 1

        Classification

        •  “MIL-DTL-38219D (USAF) F44 JP-7”

        •  “NATO F63”

        Preferred fuels

        Full life of the

        Product

        Group 2

        Group 3

        Group 4

        Permissible

        fuels with  an

        appropriate fuel

        additive

        These fuels

        MAY cause

        reduced

        engine life and

        performance

        •  “NATO XF63”

        •  “ASTM D1655 JET A”

        •  “ASTM D1655 JET A1”

        Permissible

        fuels with  an

        appropriate fuel

        additive

        These fuels

        WILL cause

        reduced

        engine life and

        performance

        Note: These fuels are only acceptable provided that

        these fuels are used with an appropriate fuel additive.

        These fuels must meet the requirements that  are

        stated in table 14. Fuel samples should be analyzed

        for the compliance. These fuels MUST NOT exceed

        lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch).

        The fuel lubricity test  must be performed on a

        HFRR, operated at 60 °C (140  °F). Refer to “ISO

        12156-1 ”. Fuels must have minimum viscosity  of

        1.4 centistokes that is delivered to the fuel injection

        pump. Fuel cooling may be  required in order to

        maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is

        delivered to the fuel injection pump.

        Biodiesel

        Group 1 Specifications (Preferred Fuels)

        This group of  fuel specifications is considered

        acceptable:

        •  EN590 DERV Grade A, B, C, E, F, Class, 0, 1, 2,

        3, and 4

        Group 3 Specifications (Permissible

        Fuels)

        •  “BS2869 Class A2” Off-Highway  Gas Oil Red

        Diesel

        •  “ASTM D975”, Class 1D , and Class 2D

        This group of fuel specification must be used only

        with the appropriate fuel additive. This  fuel WILL

        reduce engine life and performance.

        •  “JIS K2204 Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade  3”

        This grade of fuel must meet the minimum lubricity

        requirements that are stated in table 14.

        “JIS 2203#1 and #2 Toyu”

        Note: The use of LSD fuel  and the use of ULSD

        fuel is acceptable provided that the fuels meet the

        minimum requirements that are stated in table 14.

        The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed  wear

        scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The lubricity

        test must be performed on a  HFRR, operated at

        60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1 ”. By using the

        test methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO

        20846 ISO 20884”, the content of sulfur in LSD fuel

        must be below 500 PPM 0.05%. By using the  test

        methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846

        ISO 20884”, the content of sulfur in ULSD fuel must

        be below 15 PPM 0.0015%.

        Note: These fuels are only acceptable provided that

        these fuels are used with an appropriate fuel additive.

        These fuels must meet the requirements that  are

        stated in table 14. Fuel samples should be analyzed

        for the compliance. These fuels MUST NOT exceed

        lubricity wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch).

        The fuel lubricity test  must be performed on a

        HFRR, operated at 60 °C (140  °F). Refer to “ISO

        12156-1 ”. Fuels must have minimum viscosity  of

        1.4 centistokes that is delivered to the fuel injection

        pump. Fuel cooling may  be required in order to

        maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is

        delivered to the fuel injection pump.

        Group 2 Specifications  (Permissible

        Fuels)

        Group 4 Biodiesel

        Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl

        esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel  is a fuel that can

        be made from a  variety of feedstock. The most

        commonly available biodiesel in europe  is Rape

        Methyl Ester (REM). This biodiesel is derived from

        rapeseed oil. Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most

        common biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel

        is derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed

        oil are the primary  feedstocks. These fuels are

        together known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).

        This group of  fuel specifications is considered

        acceptable, but only with an appropriate fuel additive,

        but these fuels MAY reduce  the engine life and

        performance.

        •   “MIL-DTL-83133E NATO F34 (JP-8)”

        •  “MIL-DTL-83133E NATO F35 ”

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        48

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for

        use as a fuel in any concentration in compression

        engines. Without esterification, these oils gel in the

        crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not be

        compatible with many of the elastomers that are used

        in engines that are manufactured today. In original

        forms, these oils are not suitable for use  as a fuel

        in compression engines. Alternate base stocks for

        biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste cooking

        oils, or a variety of other feedstocks. In order to use

        any of the products that are  listed as fuel, the oil

        must be esterified.

        •  Biodiesel may pose low ambient  temperature

        problems for both storage and operation. At low

        ambient temperatures, fuel may need to be stored

        in a heated building or a heated storage tank. The

        fuel system may require heated fuel lines, filters,

        and tanks. Filters may plug and fuel in the tank may

        solidify at low ambient temperatures if precautions

        are not taken. Consult your biodiesel supplier for

        assistance in the blending and attainment of the

        proper cloud point for the fuel.

        •  Biodiesel has poor  oxidation stability, which

        can result in long term problems in  the storage

        of biodiesel. The poor  oxidation stability may

        accelerate fuel oxidation  in the fuel system.

        This is especially true in engines with electronic

        fuel systems because these engines operate at

        higher temperatures. Consult the fuel supplier for

        oxidation stability additives.

        Note: Engines that are manufactured by  Perkins

        are certified by use of the prescribed Environmental

        Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification

        fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other

        fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility

        of using the correct fuel that  is recommended by

        the manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other

        appropriate regulatory agencies.

        •  Biodiesel is a fuel that can be made from a variety

        of feedstock. The feedstock  that is used can

        affect the performance of the product. Two of the

        characteristics of the fuel that  are affected are

        cold flow and oxidation stability. Contact your fuel

        supplier for guidance.

        Recommendation for the use of biodiesel

        The neat biodiesel must conform to “EN14214” or

        “ASTM D6751” regulations. A maximum  of 30%

        mixture of biodiesel can be used in mineral diesel fuel.

        The mineral diesel fuel must conform to “EN590”,

        “ASTM D975” or “BS2869 Grade A2” regulations.

        •  Biodiesel or biodiesel blends are not recommended

        for engines that will operate occasionally.  This

        is due to poor oxidation  stability. If the user is

        prepared to accept some risk, then limit biodiesel

        to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications that

        should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:

        Standby Generator sets and certain emergency

        vehicles

        Note: When biodiesel, or any blend of biodiesel is

        used, the user has the responsibility for obtaining the

        proper local exemptions, regional exemptions, and/or

        national exemptions that are required for  the use

        of biodiesel in any Perkins engine that is regulated

        by emissions standards. Biodiesel that meets EN

        14214 is acceptable. The biodiesel must be blended

        with an acceptable  distillate diesel fuel at the

        •  Biodiesel is an excellent medium for  microbial

        contamination and growth. Microbial contamination

        and growth can cause corrosion in the fuel system

        and premature plugging of  the fuel filter. The

        use of conventionalanti-microbial additives and

        the effectiveness of conventional anti-microbial

        additives in biodiesel is not known. Consult your

        supplier of fuel and additive for assistance.

        maximum stated percentages. However, the following

        operational recommendations must be followed:

        •  The oil change interval can be affected by the use

        of biodiesel. Use Services Oil Analysis in  order

        to monitor the condition of  the engine oil. Use

        Services Oil Analysis also in order to determine the

        oil change interval that is optimum.

        •  Care must be taken in  order to remove water

        from fuel tanks.  Water accelerates microbial

        contamination and growth. When biodiesel  is

        compared to distillate fuels, water is naturally more

        likely to exist in the biodiesel.

        •  Confirm that biodiesel is acceptable for use with

        the manufacturer of the fuel filters.

        •  In a comparison of distillate  fuels to biodiesel,

        biodiesel provides less energy per gallon by 5% to

        7%. Do NOT change the engine rating in order to

        compensate for the power loss. This will help avoid

        engine problems when the engine is converted

        back to 100 percent distillate diesel fuel.

        Fuel for Cold Weather Operation

        The European standard “EN590” contains climate

        dependant requirements and a range of options. The

        options can be applied differently in each country.

        There are 5 classes that are given to arctic climates

        and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.

        •  The compatibility of the elastomers with biodiesel

        is being monitored. The condition of  seals and

        hoses should be monitored regularly.

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        SEBU8337

        49

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Fuel that complies with “EN590 ” CLASS 4 can be

        used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).

        Refer to “EN590” for a  detailed discretion of the

        physical properties of the fuel.

        Perkins recognizes the fact  that additives may

        be required in some special circumstances.  Fuel

        additives need to be used  with caution. Contact

        your fuel supplier for those  circumstances when

        fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier can

        recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the

        correct level of treatment.

        The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in the

        united states of america may be used in very cold

        temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).

        Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should

        treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated

        fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in

        table 14.

        In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may also

        use fuels that are listed in the table 16. These fuels

        are intended to be used in temperatures that can be

        as low as −54 °C (−65.2 °F).

        Table 16

        i03040140

        Fluid Recommendations

        Light Distillate  Fuels

        Grade

        (1)

        Specification

        “MIL-DTL-5624U”

        “MIL-DTL-83133E”

        “ASTM D1655”

        JP-5

        General Lubricant Information

        JP-8

        Jet-A-1

        Because of government regulations regarding the

        certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,

        the lubricant recommendations must be followed.

        (1)  The use of these fuels is acceptable with an appropriate fuel

        additive and the fuels must meet minimum requirements that

        are stated in Table 14. Fuel samples should  be analyzed for

        the compliance. Fuels MUST NOT exceed 0.52 mm lubricity

        wear scar diameter that is tested on a HFFR . The test must be

        performed at 60 °C. Refer to “ISO 12156-1”. Fuels must have

        minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is delivered to  the

        fuel injection pump. Fuel cooling may be required in order to

        maintain minimum viscosity of 1.4 centistokes that is delivered

        to the fuel injection pump.

        •  EMA____________Engine Manufacturers Association

        •  API_____________________American Petroleum Institute

        •  SAE___________________________________________Society Of

        Automotive Engineers Inc.

        Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)

        Oils

        Mixing alcohol or gasoline with diesel fuel can pro-

        duce an explosive mixture in the engine crankcase

        or the fuel tank.  Alcohol or gasoline must not be

        used in order to dilute diesel fuel. Failure to follow

        this instruction may result in death or personal in-

        jury.

        The “Engine  Manufacturers Association

        Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is

        recognized by Perkins. For detailed  information

        about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA

        publication, “EMA DHD -1”.

        There are many other diesel fuel specifications that

        are published by governments and by technological

        societies. Usually, those specifications do not review

        all the requirements that are addressed in table 14.

        To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete

        fuel analysis should be  obtained before engine

        operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the

        properties that are stated in the table 14.

        API Oils

        The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by

        the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized

        by Perkins. For detailed  information about this

        system, see the latest edition of the “API publication

        No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are

        authorized by API.

        Fuel Additive

        Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally

        recommended. This is due to potential damage to

        the fuel system or the  engine. Your fuel supplier

        or the fuel manufacturer will add  the appropriate

        supplemental diesel fuel additives.

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        50

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        In order to make the correct choice of a commercial

        oil, refer to the following explanations:

        EMA DHD-1  – The  Engine Manufacturers

        Association (EMA) has  developed lubricant

        recommendations as an alternative to the  API oil

        classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended

        Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for

        these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke

        cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may

        be used in Perkins engines when the following oils

        are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API

        CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior

        performance in comparison to API CG-4 and  API

        CF-4.

        g00546535

        Illustration 18

        Typical API symbol

        DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance

        Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many

        applications. The tests and the test limits  that are

        used to define DHD-1 are similar  to the new API

        CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also

        meet the requirements for diesel engines that require

        low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the

        harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance

        and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.

        These oils will also provide superior control of piston

        deposit for engines with either two-piece steel pistons

        or aluminum pistons.

        Diesel engine oils CC,  CD, CD-2, and CE have

        not been API authorized  classifications since 1

        January 1996. Table 17 summarizes the status of

        the classifications.

        Table 17

        API Classifications

        Current

        CH-4, ,  CI-4

        -

        Obsolete

        CE, CC,  CD

        CD-2  (1)

        All DHD-1 oils must complete a  full test program

        with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of

        the finished commercial oil. The use of “API  Base

        Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for

        DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the  variation in

        performance that can occur when base stocks are

        changed in commercial oil formulations.

        (1)  The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Perkins does not

        sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.

        Terminology

        Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of

        “SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”

        abbreviations, and some classifications follow the

        “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine

        Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other

        definitions that will be of assistance in  purchasing

        lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found

        in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine

        Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).

        DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil

        change interval programs that optimize the life of the

        oil. These oil change interval programs are based

        on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended  for

        conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins

        dealer or your Perkins distributor has the  specific

        guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

        API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to

        meet the requirements of the new high performance

        diesel engines. Also,  the oil was designed to

        meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel

        engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use

        in older diesel engines and in diesel  engines that

        use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4  oils may be

        used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API

        CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the

        performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:

        deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear

        of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,

        and corrosion.

        Engine Oil

        Commercial Oils

        The performance of commercial  diesel engine

        oils is based  on American Petroleum Institute

        (API) classifications. These API classifications are

        developed in order to provide commercial lubricants

        for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at

        various conditions.

        Only use commercial oils that meet the  following

        classifications:

        •  API CH-4 CI-4

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        SEBU8337

        51

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Three new engine tests were developed for the API

        CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits

        on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.

        This test (piston deposit) also measures the control

        of oil consumption. A  second test is conducted

        with moderate oil soot. The second test measures

        the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of

        cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third

        new test measures the following characteristics with

        high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,

        resistance of the oil in  plugging the oil filter, and

        control of sludge.

        In addition to the new  tests, API CH-4 oils have

        tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that

        generate high soot. The oils  also have improved

        oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an

        additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use

        aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is

        also established for engines that operate in areas

        with high sulfur diesel fuel.

        g00799818

        Illustration 19

        (Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”

        (X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight

        (1) TBN of new  oil

        (2) Change the oil when the  TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of

        the original TBN.

        Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that

        exceed 1.5 percent:

        All of these improvements  allow the API CH-4

        oil to achieve optimum oil  change intervals. API

        CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil

        change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended

        for conditions that demand  a premium oil. Your

        Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific

        guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.

        Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one

        of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.

        Reduce the oil change  interval. Base the oil

        change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the

        oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a

        wear metal analysis.

        Some commercial  oils that meet  the API

        classifications may require reduced  oil change

        intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely

        monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear

        metal analysis.

        Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil

        with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss

        of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing

        of the cylinder bore.

        NOTICE

        Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause

        shortened engine service  life due to deposits  and/or

        excessive wear.

        NOTICE

        Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel

        sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened

        oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate

        wear protection.

        Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur

        Levels for Direct Injection (DI)  Diesel

        Engines

        Table 18

        Percentage of Sulfur in

        the fuel

        Oil change interval

        The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on

        the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that

        use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil

        must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level.  The TBN is

        defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the

        oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 19

        demonstrates the TBN.

        Lower than 0.5

        0.5 to 1.0

        Normal

        0.75 of normal

        0.50 of normal

        Greater than 1.0

        Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations

        for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines

        The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined

        by the minimum  ambient temperature during

        cold engine start-up, and the  maximum ambient

        temperature during engine operation.

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        52

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Refer to Table 19 (minimum temperature) in order

        to determine the required oil viscosity for starting a

        cold engine.

        Re-refined Base Stock Oils

        Re-refined base stock  oils are accept, able for

        use in Perkins  engines if these oils  meet the

        performance requirements that are specified  by

        Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils  can be used

        exclusively in finished oil or in a combination  with

        new base stock oils. The US military specifications

        and the specifications of other  heavy equipment

        manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base

        stock oils that meet the same criteria.

        Refer to Table 19 (maximum temperature) in order

        to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the

        highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.

        Generally, use the highest  oil viscosity that is

        available to meet the requirement for the temperature

        at start-up.

        Table 19

        The process that is used to make re-refined  base

        stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals

        that are in the used  oil and all the additives that

        are in the used  oil. The process that is used to

        make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the

        process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the

        used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of

        high quality, re-refined base stock oil.

        Engine Oil  Viscosity

        EMA LRG-1

        API CH-4

        Viscosity Grade

        Ambient Temperature

        Minimum

        Maximum

        SAE 0W20

        SAE 0W30

        SAE 0W40

        SAE 5W30

        SAE 5W40

        SAE 10W30

        SAE 15W40

        −40 °C (−40 °F)

        −40 °C (−40 °F)

        −40 °C (−40 °F)

        −30 °C (−22 °F)

        −30 °C (−22 °F)

        −20 °C (−4 °F)

        −10 °C (14 °F)

        10 °C (50 °F)

        30 °C (86 °F)

        40 °C (104 °F)

        30 °C (86 °F)

        40 °C (104 °F)

        40 °C (104 °F)

        50 °C (122 °F)

        Lubricants for Cold Weather

        When an engine is started and an engine is operated

        in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use

        multigrade oils that are capable  of flowing in low

        temperatures.

        These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE

        0W or SAE 5W.

        Synthetic Base Stock Oils

        When an engine is started and operated in ambient

        temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic

        base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade

        or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour

        point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).

        Synthetic base oils  are acceptable for use in

        these engines if these oils meet the  performance

        requirements that are specified for the engine.

        Synthetic base oils generally perform better  than

        conventional oils in the following two areas:

        The number of acceptable lubricants is  limited in

        cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the

        following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions:

        •  Synthetic base oils have improved  flow at low

        temperatures especially in arctic conditions.

        First Choice  – Use oil  with an EMA DHD-1

        Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has

        an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,

        SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40

        lubricant viscosity grade.

        •  Synthetic base oils have  improved oxidation

        stability especially at high operating temperatures.

        Some synthetic base  oils have performance

        characteristics that enhance the service life of the

        oil. Perkins does not  recommend the automatic

        extending of the oil change intervals for any type of

        oil.

        Second Choice  – Use an oil that  has a CH-4

        additive package. Although the oil  has not been

        tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil

        must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,

        SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.

        NOTICE

        Shortened engine  service life  could result if  second

        choice oils are used.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        53

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Aftermarket Oil Additives

        •  Tests are  conducted in order  to detect

        contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel.

        Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket

        additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket

        additives in order to achieve the engine’s maximum

        service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,

        finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial

        additive packages. These additive packages are

        blended into the base oils at precise percentages in

        order to help provide finished oils with performance

        characteristics that meet industry standards.

        •  The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of

        the oil’s lubricating properties. An infrared analysis

        is used to compare the properties of new oil to the

        properties of the used oil sample. This analysis

        allows technicians to determine the amount  of

        deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis

        also allows technicians to verify the performance

        of the oil according to the specification during the

        entire oil change interval.

        There are no industry standard tests that evaluate

        the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket

        additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may

        not be compatible with the  finished oil’s additive

        package, which could lower the performance of the

        finished oil. The aftermarket additive could  fail to

        mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge

        in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the  use of

        aftermarket additives in finished oils.

        To achieve the best performance  from a Perkins

        engine, conform to the following guidelines:

        •  Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets

        the “EMA Recommended Guideline on  Diesel

        Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.

        •  See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in

        order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your

        engine.

        •  At the specified interval, service the engine. Use

        new oil and install a new oil filter.

        •  Perform maintenance at the  intervals that are

        specified in the  Operation and Maintenance

        Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.

        Oil analysis

        Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling

        valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve

        is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil

        analysis will complement the preventive maintenance

        program.

        The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to

        determine oil performance and component wear

        rates. Contamination can be identified and measured

        through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis

        includes the following tests:

        •  The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the

        engine’s metals. The amount of wear metal and

        type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The

        increase in the rate of engine wear metal  in the

        oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear

        metal in the oil.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        54

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Maintenance Interval Schedule

        i02784638

        Every 2000 Service Hours

        Maintenance Interval Schedule

        Alternator - Inspect ...............................................  55

        Water Pump - Inspect ...........................................  81

        Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years

        When Required

        Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator  -

        Replace ............................................................... 60

        Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 61

        Engine Protective Devices - Check ......................  70

        Engine Speed/Timing Sensors -  Check/Clean/

        Calibrate .............................................................. 70

        Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 79

        Battery - Replace .................................................. 55

        Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................  56

        Engine - Clean ...................................................... 62

        Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ..................................  67

        Fuel System - Prime .............................................  71

        Severe Service Application - Check .....................  78

        Daily

        Every 5000 Service Hours

        Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................  60

        Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 61

        Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 64

        Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................  66

        Fuel System Primary  Filter/Water Separator -

        Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................  79

        Every 6000 Service Hours

        Overhaul Considerations ......................................  77

        Drain ...................................................................  72

        Walk-Around Inspection ........................................ 80

        Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years

        Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 58

        Every Week

        Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years

        Jacket Water Heater - Check ................................ 77

        Overhaul Considerations ......................................  77

        Every 250 Service Hours or 1 Year

        Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 56

        Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 76

        Initial 500 Service Hours

        Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ......................  71

        Every 500 Service Hours

        Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .............................. 57

        Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ......................  71

        Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year

        Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ...............................  55

        Engine Air Cleaner Element  (Single Element) -

        Inspect/Replace ..................................................  62

        Engine Crankcase Breather - Replace .................  64

        Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 66

        Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................  68

        Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate ............................... 71

        Fuel System Primary  Filter (Water Separator)

        Element - Replace ..............................................  73

        Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace .............. 74

        Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................  76

        Radiator - Clean .................................................... 78

        Every 1000 Service Hours or 1 Year

        Electronic Unit Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................ 61

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        55

        Maintenance Section

        Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test

        i02578388

        i02322311

        Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test

        (Air-To-Air Aftercooler)

        Alternator - Inspect

        Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection  of

        the alternator. Inspect  the alternator for loose

        connections and correct battery charging. Check the

        ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in

        order to ensure correct battery performance and/or

        correct performance of the electrical system. Make

        repairs, as required.

        Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to

        the effects of the operating environment.

        Inspect the cooling air side of the aftercooler for these

        items: damaged fins, corrosion, dirt, grease, insects,

        leaves, oil, and other debris. Clean the cooling air

        side of the aftercooler, if necessary.

        Check the alternator and the  battery charger for

        correct operation. If the  batteries are correctly

        charged, the ammeter reading should be very near

        zero. All batteries should  be kept charged. The

        batteries should be kept warm because temperature

        affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,

        the battery will not  crank the engine. When the

        engine is not run for long periods of  time or if the

        engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not

        fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze

        more easily than a battery with a full charge.

        For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that

        are used for cleaning the outside of radiators.

        Personal injury can result from air pressure.

        Personal injury can result without following prop-

        er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-

        tective face shield and protective clothing.

        i01878164

        Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less

        than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

        Battery - Replace

        Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing

        loose debris. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm

        (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air

        nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.

        This will remove debris that is between the tubes.

        Batteries give  off combustible  gases  which can

        explode. A spark can cause the combustible gas-

        es to ignite. This can result in severe personal in-

        jury or death.

        Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.

        The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes

        must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized

        water in order to soften mud.

        Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are  in

        an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in or-

        der to help  prevent electrical arcs  and/or sparks

        near batteries. Do  not smoke when  batteries are

        serviced.

        Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and

        grease. Wash the core with detergent and hot water.

        Thoroughly rinse the core with clean water.

        After cleaning, start the engine. Run the engine for

        two minutes. This will help in the removal of debris

        and drying of the core.  Stop the engine. Inspect

        the core for cleanliness.  Repeat the cleaning, if

        necessary.

        The battery cables or the batteries  should not be

        removed with the battery cover in place. The bat-

        tery cover should be  removed before any servic-

        ing is attempted.

        Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened

        with a “comb”.

        Removing the battery cables or the batteries with

        the cover in place may cause a battery explosion

        resulting in personal injury.

        Inspect these items for  good condition: welds,

        mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,

        and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.

        1.  Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove

        all electrical loads.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        56

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Battery Electrolyte Level - Check

        2.  Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any

        battery chargers.

        2.  Check the condition of the electrolyte  with a

        suitable battery tester.

        3.  Install the caps.

        3.  The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE

        “-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal

        on the starter motor. Disconnect the cable from

        the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.

        4.  Keep the batteries clean.

        Clean the battery case with one of the following

        cleaning solutions:

        4.  The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE

        “+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal

        on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from

        the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.

        •  A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of washing soda or

        baking soda and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water

        Note: Always recycle a battery.  Never discard a

        battery. Return used batteries to  an appropriate

        recycling facility.

        •  A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L

        (1 qt) of clean water

        Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.

        5.  Remove the used battery.

        6.  Install the new battery.

        Use a fine  grade of sandpaper to clean the

        terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items

        until the surfaces are bright or shiny.  DO NOT

        remove material excessively. Excessive removal

        of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.

        Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable

        petroleum jelly.

        Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that

        the engine start switch is OFF.

        7.  Connect the cable from the starting motor to the

        POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.

        8.  Connect the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” terminal

        on the starter motor to the NEGATIVE “-” battery

        terminal.

        i02857256

        Battery or Battery  Cable -

        Disconnect

        i02563861

        Battery Electrolyte Level  -

        Check

        The battery cables or the batteries  should not be

        removed with the battery cover in place. The bat-

        tery cover should be  removed before any servic-

        ing is attempted.

        When the engine is not run for long periods of time or

        when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries

        may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order

        to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries

        are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should

        be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.

        Removing the battery cables or the batteries with

        the cover in place may cause a battery explosion

        resulting in personal injury.

        1.  Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the

        ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position

        and remove the key and all electrical loads.

        All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which

        can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face

        shield and protective clothing when working on or

        near batteries.

        2.  Turnoff any battery chargers. Disconnect any

        battery chargers.

        3.  Disconnect the negative battery terminal at the

        battery that goes to the start switch. Ensure that

        the cable cannot contact the terminal. When four

        12 volt batteries are involved, the negative side of

        two batteries must be disconnected.

        1.  Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte

        level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.

        If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled

        water. If distilled water is not available use clean

        water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially

        softened water.

        4.  Tape the leads in order to help prevent accidental

        starting.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        57

        Maintenance Section

        Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace

        5.  Proceed with necessary system repairs. Reverse

        the steps in order to reconnect all of the cables.

        Alternator Belt Adjustment

        i02784753

        Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace

        Inspection

        Inspect the alternator belt and the fan drive belts for

        wear and for cracking. Replace the belts if the belts

        are not in good condition.

        Check the belt tension according to the information

        in Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Belt

        Tension Chart”.

        Slippage of loose belts can reduce  the efficiency

        of the driven components. Vibration of loose belts

        can cause unnecessary wear  on the following

        components:

        •  Belts

        •  Pulleys

        •  Bearings

        If the belts are too tight, unnecessary stress is placed

        on the components. This reduces the service life of

        the components.

        Replacement

        g01391209

        Illustration 20

        For applications that require multiple  drive belts,

        replace the drive belts in matched sets. Replacing

        one drive belt of a matched set will cause the new

        drive belt to carry more load because the older drive

        belts are stretched. The additional load on the new

        drive belt could cause the new drive belt to fail.

        1.  Remove the belt guard.

        2.  Loosen alternator pivot bolt (2) .

        3.  Loosen the setscrew for the adjustment link (1).

        4.  Move the assembly in  order to increase or

        decrease the belt tension.  Refer to Systems

        Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Belt Tension

        Chart”.

        5.  Tighten the setscrew for the adjustment link (1)

        securely. Tighten alternator pivot bolt (2) securely.

        6.  Reinstall the belt guard.

        If new alternator belts are installed,  check the

        tension of the alternator  belt again after 10

        minutes of engine operation at the rated rpm.

        7.  Remove the belt guard and check the belt tension.

        When the correct belt tension is obtained, fit the

        belt guard.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        58

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

        Adjustment of the Fan Drive Belt

        i02579635

        Cooling System Coolant (ELC)

        - Change

        NOTICE

        Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained

        during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-

        ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to

        collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-

        ing any  compartment or  disassembling any  compo-

        nent containing fluids.

        Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and

        mandates.

        NOTICE

        Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

        Contaminants may cause  rapid wear and  shortened

        component life.

        Clean the cooling system  and flush the cooling

        system before the recommended  maintenance

        interval if the following conditions exist:

        g01402065

        Illustration 21

        •  The engine overheats frequently.

        •  Foaming of the coolant is observed.

        1.  Remove the belt guard.

        2.  Loosen the large locknut  (3) and turn the

        adjustment screw (4) until the correct belt tension

        is obtained.

        •  The oil has entered the cooling system  and the

        coolant is contaminated.

        •  The fuel has entered the cooling system and the

        coolant is contaminated.

        3.  Tighten the large locknut (3) securely and recheck

        the belt tension.

        Note: When the cooling system  is cleaned, only

        clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and

        replaced.

        4.  If the belt tension is correct, loosen the adjustment

        screw (3) in order to release the tension.

        5.  Reinstall the belt guard.

        Note: Inspect the  water pump and the water

        temperature regulator after the cooling system has

        been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace

        the water pump, the water temperature regulator and

        the hoses, if necessary.

        If new alternator belts are installed,  check the

        tension of the  alternator belt again after 10

        minutes of engine operation at the rated rpm.

        6.  Remove the belt guard and check the belt tension.

        When the correct belt tension is obtained, fit the

        belt guard.

        Drain

        Pressurized System: Hot coolant  can cause seri-

        ous burns. To open the cooling system filler  cap,

        stop the engine and wait until the cooling system

        components are cool. Loosen the cooling system

        pressure cap slowly  in order to  relieve the pres-

        sure.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        59

        Maintenance Section

        Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

        1.  Stop the engine and allow the engine to  cool.

        Loosen the cooling system filler  cap slowly in

        order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling

        system filler cap.

        NOTICE

        Do  not   fill  the   cooling   system  faster   than  5   L

        (1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

        2.  Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on

        the radiator.

        Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

        2.  Fill the cooling system  with Extended Life

        Coolant (ELC). Refer  to the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”

        topic (Maintenance Section) for more information

        on cooling system specifications. Do not install the

        cooling system filler cap.

        Allow the coolant to drain.

        NOTICE

        Dispose of  used engine  coolant or  recycle. Various

        methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant

        for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation

        procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to

        reclaim the coolant.

        3.  Start and run the engine for one minute in order

        to purge the air from the cavities  of the engine

        block. Stop the engine.

        For information regarding the  disposal and the

        recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer

        or your Perkins distributor.

        4.  Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant

        level within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom

        of the pipe for filling. If necessary, repeat step 3.

        Maintain the coolant level in the expansion bottle

        (if equipped) at the correct level.

        Flush

        1.  Flush the cooling system with clean water in order

        to remove any debris.

        2.  Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on

        the radiator.

        NOTICE

        Do  not   fill  the   cooling  system   faster  than   5  L

        (1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

        Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

        3.  Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the

        cooling system filler cap.

        g00103639

        Illustration 22

        4.  Start and run  the engine until the  water

        temperature regulator opens and the fluid levels

        decreases in the header tank.

        Filler cap

        5.  Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the

        gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old

        filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket

        is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump

        in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct

        pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If

        the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,

        install a new filler cap.

        5.  Stop the engine and allow the engine to  cool.

        Loosen the cooling system filler  cap slowly in

        order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling

        system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove

        the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the water to

        drain. Flush the cooling system with clean water.

        6.  Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for

        leaks and for correct operating temperature.

        Fill

        1.  Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on

        the radiator.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        60

        SEBU8337

        Maintenance Section

        Cooling System Coolant Level - Check

        i01197583

        3.  Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the

        condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace  the

        cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are

        damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.

        Cooling System Coolant Level

        - Check

        4.  Inspect the cooling system for leaks.

        Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped

        and cool.

        i02573904

        Cooling System  Water

        Temperature Regulator  -

        Replace

        Replace the water temperature regulator  before

        the water temperature regulator  fails. This is a

        recommended preventive maintenance practice.

        Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces

        the chances for unscheduled downtime.

        A water temperature  regulator that fails in  a

        partially opened position can cause overheating or

        overcooling of the engine.

        g00285520

        Illustration 23

        Cooling system filler cap

        A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed

        position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive

        overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder

        head or piston seizure problems.

        Pressurized System: Hot coolant  can cause seri-

        ous burns. To open the cooling system filler  cap,

        stop the engine and wait until the cooling system

        components are cool. Loosen the cooling system

        pressure cap slowly  in order to  relieve the pres-

        sure.

        A water temperature regulator that fails in the open

        position will cause the engine operating temperature

        to be too low during  partial load operation. Low

        engine operating temperatures during partial loads

        could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the

        cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result

        in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear

        of the cylinder liner.

        1.  Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in

        order to relieve pressure.

        2.  Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)

        of the bottom of the filler  pipe. If the engine is

        equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant

        level to the proper level in the sight glass.

        Refer to Disassembly  and Assembly, “Water

        Temperature Regulator Housing -  Remove and

        Install” for the replacement procedure of the water

        temperature regulator, or consult  your Perkins

        distributor.

        Note: If only the water temperature regulators are

        replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to

        a level that is below the water temperature regulator

        housing.

        g00103639

        Illustration 24

        Typical filler cap gaskets

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

        SEBU8337

        61

        Maintenance Section

        Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect

        i02573905

        i02151646

        Crankshaft Vibration Damper

        - Inspect

        Driven Equipment - Check

        Refer to the OEM specifications for more information

        on the following maintenance recommendations for

        the driven equipment:

        Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure

        of the crankshaft vibration damper can  increase

        torsional vibrations. This can result in damage  to

        the crankshaft and to other engine components. A

        damper that is damaged can cause excessive gear

        train noise at variable points in the speed range.

        •  Inspection

        •  Adjustment

        •  Lubrication

        The damper is mounted to the crankshaft which is

        located behind the belt guard on  the front of the

        engine.

        •  Other maintenance recommendations

        Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment

        which is recommended by the OEM.

        Visconic Damper

        The visconic damper has a weight that is  located

        inside a fluid filled case. The weight moves in  the

        case in order to limit torsional vibration.

        i02784833

        Electronic Unit  Injector -

        Inspect/Adjust

        Inspect the damper for evidence  of fluid leaks. If

        a fluid leak is found,  determine the type of fluid.

        The fluid in the damper is silicone. Silicone has the

        following characteristics: transparent, viscous, and

        smooth.

          

          

        If the fluid leak is oil, inspect the crankshaft seals for

        leaks. If a leak is observed, replace the crankshaft

        seals.

        Be sure  the engine  cannot be started  while this

        maintenance is being performed. To prevent pos-

        sible injury, do not use the  starting motor to turn

        the flywheel.

        Inspect the damper and repair or replace the damper

        for any of the following reasons:

        Hot engine  components can cause  burns. Allow

        additional time for the engine to cool before mea-

        suring/adjusting the unit injectors.

        •  The damper is dented, cracked, or leaking.

        •  The paint on the damper is discolored from heat.

        The electronic unit injectors use high voltage. Dis-

        connect the unit injector enable circuit connector

        in order to  prevent personal injury. Do  not come

        in contact with the injector terminals while the en-

        gine is running.

        •  The engine has had a failure because of a broken

        crankshaft.

        •  Analysis of the oil has revealed that the front main

        bearing is badly worn.

        •  There is a large amount of gear train wear that is

        not caused by a lack of oil.

        The operation of Perkins engines  with improper

        adjustments of the electronic unit injector can reduce

        engine efficiency. This reduced efficiency could result

        in excessive fuel usage and/or shortened engine

        component life.

        •  The temperature of the damper fluid is too high.

        Refer to the Service Manual or consult your Perkins

        distributor for information about damper replacement.

        Only qualified service personnel should  perform

        this maintenance. Refer to  the following topics

        for your engine for the  correct procedure: Refer

        to the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,

        “Electronic Unit Injector - Test” for the test procedure,

        and Systems Operation, Testing and  Adjusting,

        “Electronic Unit Injector - Adjust”  for the correct

        procedure for adjusting the injectors.

        This document has been printed from SPI². Not for Resale


         

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