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        珀金斯Perkins2206D-E13TA操作保養

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        Operation and

        Maintenance

        Manual

        2206D-E13TA Industrial Engine

        Engine Operation

        Interrupted starts put excessive stress on the drive

        train. Interrupted starts also waste fuel. To get the

        driven equipment in motion, engage the clutch

        smoothly with no load on the equipment. This

        method should produce a start that is smooth and

        easy. The engine rpm should not increase and the

        clutch should not slip.

        i06219260

        Engine Operation

        3. Ensure that the ranges of the gauges are normal

        when the engine is operating at one-half of the

        rated rpm. Ensure that all gauges operate properly.

        Correct operation and maintenance are key factors in

        obtaining the maximum life and economy of the

        engine. If the directions in the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be

        4. Increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm. Always

        increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm before

        the load is applied.

        minimized and engine service life can be maximized.

        Variable Speed Engine

        The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the

        engine reaches operating temperature. The engine

        will reach normal operating temperature sooner

        during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a low-

        power demand. This procedure is more effective than

        idling the engine at no load. The engine should reach

        operating temperature in a few minutes.

        5. Apply the load. Begin operating the engine at low

        load. Check the gauges and equipment for proper

        operation. After normal oil pressure is reached and

        the temperature gauge begins to move, the engine

        may be operated at full load. Check the gauges

        and equipment frequently when the engine is

        operated under load.

        Gauge readings should be observed and the data

        should be recorded frequently while the engine is

        operating. Comparing the data over time will help to

        determine normal readings for each gauge.

        Extended operation at low idle or at reduced load

        may cause increased oil consumption and carbon

        buildup in the cylinders. This carbon buildup

        Comparing data over time will also help detect

        abnormal operating developments. Significant

        changes in the readings should be investigated.

        results in a loss of power and/or poor performance.

        i04018232

        Constant Speed Engine

        Fuel Conservation Practices

        Allow the engine to warn up before applying load.

        Gauge readings should be observed and the data

        should be recorded frequently while the engine is

        operating. Comparing the data over time will help to

        determine normal readings for each gauge.

        Comparing data over time will also help detect

        abnormal operating developments. Significant

        changes in the readings should be investigated.

        The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel

        economy. Perkins  design and technology in

        manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all

        applications. Follow the recommended procedures in

        order to attain optimum performance for the life of the

        engine.

        •   Avoid spilling fuel.

        i04038637

        Engaging the Driven

        Equipment

        Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel

        may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for

        leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.

        •   Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.

        Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the

        Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel

        Recommendations”for further information.

        1. Operate the engine at one-half of the rated rpm,

        when possible.

        •   Avoid unnecessary idling.

        2. Engage the driven equipment without a load on the

        equipment, when possible.

        Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of

        time.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        35

        Engine Operation

        Fuel Conservation Practices

        •   Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the

        air cleaner elements clean.

        •   Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly.

        For more information refer to this Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect”

        •   Maintain a good electrical system.

        One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.

        This fault will consume excess power and excess

        fuel.

        •   The belt should be in good condition. Refer to the

        Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “V-Belt

        Test” for further information.

        •   Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are

        tight. The connections should not leak.

        •   Ensure that the driven equipment is in good

        working order.

        •   Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat

        from the jacket water system and the exhaust

        system, when possible. Keep cooling system

        components clean and keep cooling system

        components in good repair. Never operate the

        engine without water temperature regulators. All of

        these items will help maintain operating

        temperatures.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        36

        SEBU9072

        Cold Weather Operation

        Radiator Restrictions

        Cold Weather Operation

        The cloud point of the fuel is the temperature at which

        waxes naturally found in the diesel fuel begin to form

        crystals. The cloud point of the fuel must be below

        lowest ambient temperature to prevent filters from

        plugging.

        i05954317

        Radiator Restrictions

        Cold Filter Plugging Point is a temperature at which a

        particular fuel will pass through a standardized

        filtration device. This CFPP gives an estimate of the

        lower operability temperature of fuel

        Perkins  discourages the use of airflow restriction

        devices that are mounted in front of radiators. Airflow

        restriction can cause the following conditions:

        Pour point is the last temperature before the fuel flow

        stops and waxing of the fuel will start.

        •   High exhaust temperatures

        •   Power loss

        Be aware of these properties when diesel fuel is

        purchased. Consider the average ambient air

        temperature for the engines application. Engines that

        are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the

        engines are shipped to colder climate. Problems can

        result due to changes in temperature.

        •   Excessive fan usage

        •   Reduction in fuel economy

        If an airflow restriction device must be used, the

        device should have a permanent opening directly in

        line with the fan hub. The device must have a

        Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor

        performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing

        minimum opening dimension of at least 770 cm

        (120 in

        2

        The following components can provide a means of

        minimizing fuel waxing problems in cold weather:

        2

        ).

        A centered opening that is directly in line with the fan

        hub is specified in order to prevent an interrupted

        airflow on the fan blades. Interrupted airflow on the

        fan blades could cause a fan failure.

        •   Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option

        •   Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option

        Winter and arctic grades of diesel fuel are available in

        the countries and territories with severe winters. For

        more information refer to the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Fuel For Cold Weather

        Operation”

        Perkins  recommends a warning device for the inlet

        manifold temperature and/or the installation of an inlet

        air temperature gauge. The warning device for the

        inlet manifold temperature should be set at 75 °C

        (167 °F). The inlet manifold air temperature should

        not exceed 75 °C (167 °F). Temperatures that

        exceed this limit can cause power loss and potential

        engine damage.

        Another important fuel property which can affect cold

        start and operation of diesel engine is Cetane

        number. Detail and requirements of this property are

        given in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

        “Fluid Recommendations”.

        i05849931

        Fuel and the Effect from Cold

        Weather

        i06093465

        Fuel Related Components in

        Cold Weather

        Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended

        by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance

        Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.

        Fuel Tanks

        Properties of the diesel fuel can have a significant

        effect on the engine cold start capability. It is critical

        that the low temperature properties of diesel fuel are

        acceptable for the minimum ambient temperature the

        engine is expected to see in the operation.

        Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.

        Top off the fuel tanks after operating the engine.

        Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining

        water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.

        Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water

        and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel

        supply pipe.

        Following properties are used to define fuels low

        temperature capability:

        •   Cloud point

        Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel

        directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is

        equipped with this system, regular maintenance of

        the fuel system filter is important.

        •   Pour point

        •   Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP)

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        37

        Cold Weather Operation

        Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather

        Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage

        tank at the following intervals:

        •   Weekly

        •   Oil changes

        •   Refueling of the fuel tank

        This draining will help prevent water and/or sediment

        from being pumped from the fuel storage tank and

        into the engine fuel tank.

        Fuel Heaters

        Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging

        in cold weather due to waxing. A fuel heater should

        be installed in order for the fuel to be heated before

        the fuel enters the primary fuel filter.

        Select a fuel heater that is mechanically simple, yet

        adequate for the application. The fuel heater should

        also help to prevent overheating of the fuel. High fuel

        temperatures reduce engine performance and the

        availability of engine power. Choose a fuel heater with

        a large heating surface. The fuel heater should be

        practical in size. Small heaters can be too hot due to

        the limited surface area.

        Disconnect the fuel heater in warm weather.

        Note: Fuel heaters that are controlled by the water

        temperature regulator or self-regulating fuel heaters

        should be used with this engine. Fuel heaters that are

        not controlled by the water temperature regulator can

        heat the fuel in excess of 65° C  (149° F). A loss of

        engine power can occur if the fuel supply temperature

        exceeds 37° C (100° F).

        Note: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should have

        a bypass provision in order to prevent overheating of

        the fuel in warm-weather operation.

        For further information on fuel heaters, consult your

        Perkins  distributor.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        38

        SEBU9072

        Engine Stopping

        Stopping the Engine

        Engine Stopping

        1. Remove the load from the engine so that the

        engine has no more than 30% power.

        i02334873

        2. Run the engine at the programmed low idle speed

        for at least 3 minutes.

        Stopping the Engine

        3. After the cool down period, turn the start switch to

        the OFF position.

        NOTICE

        i01465494

        Stopping  the engine  immediately  after it  has  been

        working under load, can result in overheating and ac-

        celerated wear of the engine components.

        After Stopping Engine

        Avoid  accelerating  the  engine  prior   to  shutting  it

        down.

        Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate

        the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the

        engine oil to return to the oil pan.

        Avoiding hot  engine shutdowns will maximize  turbo-

        charger shaft and bearing life.

        •   Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level

        between the “ADD”  mark and the “FULL”   mark

        on the oil level gauge.

        Note: Individual applications will have different

        control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures

        are understood. Use the following general guidelines

        in order to stop the engine.

        •   If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair

        any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.

        1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the

        engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to

        idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.

        •   Note the service hour meter reading. Perform the

        maintenance that is in the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

        Schedule”.

        2. Stop the engine after the cool down period

        according to the shutoff system on the engine and

        turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If

        necessary, refer to the instructions that are

        provided by the OEM.

        •   Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent

        accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill

        the fuel tank.

        NOTICE

        Only use  antifreeze/coolant  mixtures recommended

        in the Coolant Specifications that are in the Operation

        and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause

        engine damage.

        i05812522

        Manual Stop Procedure

        •   Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.

        NOTICE

        Stopping  the engine  immediately  after it  has  been

        working under load can result in overheating and ac-

        celerated wear of the engine components.

        •   If freezing temperatures are expected, check the

        coolant for proper antifreeze protection. The

        cooling system must be protected against freezing

        to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add

        the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

        If the engine  has been operating at  high rpm and/or

        high loads, run at low idle for at least three minutes to

        reduce and stabilize internal  engine temperature be-

        fore stopping the engine.

        •   Perform all required periodic maintenance on all

        driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in

        the instructions from the OEM.

        Avoiding hot  engine shutdowns will maximize  turbo-

        charger shaft and bearing life.

        Note: Individual applications have different control

        systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures are

        understood. Use the following general guidelines in

        order to stop the engine.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        39

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Maintenance Section

        Refill Capacities

        Table 2

        2206 Industrial Engine

        Approximate Refill Capacities

        Oil Sump(1)

        Liters

        32 L

        Quarts

        33.8 qt

        39.1 qt

        31.7 qt

        Standard Oil Pan

        Deep Oil Pan

        i06093491

        37 L

        Refill Capacities

        Center Oil Pan

        30 L

        (1)

        These values are approximate capacities for the crankcase oil

        sump which include the standard oil filters that are installed at

        the factory. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional

        oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the auxili-

        ary oil filter.

        Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,

        “Fluid Recommendations” for information about the

        fluids which are acceptable for this engine.

        Lubricant Refill Capacity

        The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect

        the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump

        plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will

        require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications

        for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.

        Coolant Refill Capacity

        To maintain the cooling system, the total cooling

        system capacity must be known. The capacity of the

        total cooling system will vary. The capacity will

        depend on the size of the radiator (capacity). Table 3

        should be completed by the customer for the

        maintenance of the cooling system.

        Table 3

        Approximate Capacity of the Cooling System

        Compartment or

        System

        Liters

        Quarts

        Total Cooling System

        (1)

        (1)

        The total cooling system capacity includes the following compo-

        nents:the engine block, the radiator and all coolant hoses and

        lines.

        Illustration 22

        g02293575

        Standard and deep oil pans

        i06194716

        Fluid Recommendations

        General Coolant Information

        NOTICE

        Never add coolant  to an overheated engine.  Engine

        damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.

        Illustration 23

        g02289293

        Center oil pan

        NOTICE

        If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an  area

        with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system

        must be either protected to the lowest outside temper-

        ature or drained completely to prevent damage.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        40

        SEBU9072

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        For a water analysis, consult one of the following

        NOTICE

        Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for

        proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

        sources:

        •   Local water utility company

        •   Agricultural agent

        •   Independent laboratory

        Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:

        •   Contamination of the cooling system

        •   Overheating of the engine

        Additives

        Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the

        cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or

        insufficient amounts of additives enable the following

        conditions to occur:

        •   Foaming of the coolant

        NOTICE

        Never operate  an engine without  water temperature

        regulators in the  cooling system. Water  temperature

        regulators help to maintain the  engine coolant at the

        proper operating  temperature. Cooling system prob-

        •   Corrosion

        •   Formation of mineral deposits

        •   Rust

        lems

        can

        develop

        without

        water

        temperature

        regulators.

        •   Scale

        Many engine failures are related to the cooling

        system. The following problems are related to cooling

        system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water

        pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.

        •   Foaming of the coolant

        Many additives are depleted during engine operation.

        These additives must be replaced periodically.

        These failures can be avoided with correct cooling

        system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is

        as important as maintenance of the fuel system and

        the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as

        important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating

        oil.

        Additives must be added at the correct concentration.

        Over concentration of additives can cause the

        inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can

        enable the following problems to occur:

        •   Formation of gel compounds

        Coolant is normally composed of three elements:

        Water, additives and glycol.

        •   Reduction of heat transfer

        •   Leakage of the water pump seal

        •   Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages

        Water

        Water is used in the cooling system in order to

        transfer heat.

        Glycol

        Distilled water or deionized water is

        recommended for use in engine cooling systems.

        Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection

        against the following conditions:

        DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling

        systems: Hard water, softened water that has been

        conditioned with salt and sea water.

        •   Boiling

        •   Freezing

        If distilled water or deionized water is not available,

        use water with the properties that are listed in Table 4

        .

        •   Cavitation of the water pump

        Table 4

        For optimum performance, Perkins  recommends a

        1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.

        Acceptable Water

        Property

        Maximum Limit

        40 mg/L

        Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection

        against the lowest ambient temperature.

        Chloride (Cl)

        Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a

        temperature of −13 °C (8.6 °F).

        Sulfate (SO4)

        Total Hardness

        Total Solids

        Acidity

        100 mg/L

        170 mg/L

        340 mg/L

        pH of 5.5 to 9.0

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        41

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.

        Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture

        with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide

        similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer

        to Table 5 and refer to table 6 .

        NOTICE

        Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only

        meets the  ASTM  D3306 specification.  This type  of

        coolant/antifreeze   is   made   for   light   automotive

        applications.

        Table 5

        Ethylene Glycol

        Perkins  recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and

        glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide

        optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.

        This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if

        extra freezing protection is required.

        Concentration

        50 Percent

        Freeze Protection

        −36 °C (−33 °F)

        60 Percent

        −51 °C (−60 °F)

        A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable

        but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling

        and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins

        recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration

        of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or

        deionized water is preferred. Standard required

        ASTM D1384, D2570, and D4340

        NOTICE

        Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-

        ceed 50 percent glycol  because of the reduced heat

        transfer capability of  propylene glycol. Use  ethylene

        glycol in  conditions that require additional protection

        against boiling or freezing.

        Table 7

        Coolant Service Life

        Table 6

        Coolant Type

        Service Life  (1)

        Propylene Glycol

        6,000 Service Hours or Three

        Years

        Concentration

        Freeze Protection

        Perkins  ELC

        50 Percent

        −29 °C (−20 °F)

        Commercial Heavy-Duty Anti-

        freeze that meets “ASTM

        D6210”

        3000 Service Hours or Two Year

        To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,

        measure the specific gravity of the coolant.

        Commercial SCA inhibitor and

        Water

        3000 Service Hours or One Year

        Coolant Recommendations

        (1)

        Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also

        be flushed out at this time.

        •   ELC

        •   SCA

        •   ASTM

        Extended Life Coolant

        Supplement Coolant Additive

        American Society for Testing and

        ELC

        Perkins  provides ELC for use in the following

        applications:

        Materials

        •   Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines

        •   Heavy-duty diesel engines

        •   Automotive applications

        The following two coolants are used in Perkins

        diesel engines:

        Preferred – Perkins  ELC

        Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze

        that meets “ASTM D6210” specifications

        The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from

        the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is

        an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC

        contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam

        agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has

        been formulated with the correct amount of these

        additives in order to provide superior corrosion

        protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.

        NOTICE

        The 1200 and 2200 series industrial engines must

        be operated with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol.

        This concentration allows the NOx reduction sys-

        tem

        temperatures.

        to

        operate

        correctly

        at

        high

        ambient

        ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with

        distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed

        ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C  (−33 °F).

        The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill

        of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also

        recommended for topping off the cooling system.

        Containers of several sizes are available. Consult

        your Perkins  distributor for the part numbers.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        42

        SEBU9072

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        ELC Cooling System Maintenance

        NOTICE

        Care must be taken to  ensure that all fluids are con-

        tained  during   performance  of  inspection,   mainte-

        nance,   testing,  adjusting   and  the   repair   of  the

        product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with  suitable

        containers before opening any compartment or disas-

        sembling any component containing fluids.

        Correct additions to the Extended Life

        Coolant

        NOTICE

        Use only  Perkins products for pre-mixed  or concen-

        trated coolants.

        Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and

        mandates.

        Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products re-

        duces the Extended Life  Coolant service life. Failure

        to  follow the  recommendations  can reduce  cooling

        system components life unless appropriate corrective

        action is performed.

        1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.

        2. Dispose of the coolant according to local

        regulations.

        In order to maintain the correct balance between the

        antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the

        recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the

        proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of

        additive. Lowering the ability of the coolant to protect

        the system will form pitting, from cavitation, from

        erosion, and from deposits.

        3. Fill the cooling system with a 33 percent solution of

        Perkins ELC and operate the engine, ensure that

        the thermostat opens. Stop the engine and allow

        the engine to cool. Drain the coolant.

        Note: Use distilled or deionized water in the solution.

        4. Again, fill the cooling system with a 33 percent

        solution of Perkins ELC and operate the engine

        ensure that the thermostat opens. Stop the engine

        and allow to cool.

        NOTICE

        Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling

        system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).

        Do not  use  standard supplemental  coolant additive

        (SCA).

        5. Drain the drain the cooling system.

        When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's

        or SCA filters.

        NOTICE

        Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system

        can  result  in  damage  to  copper  and  other  metal

        components.

        ELC Cooling System Cleaning

        Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,

        cleaning agents are not required to be used at the

        specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents

        are only required if the system has been

        contaminated by the addition of some other type of

        coolant or by cooling system damage.

        6. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed

        ELC. Operate the engine. Ensure that all coolant

        valves open then stop the engine. When cool

        check the coolant level.

        ELC Cooling System Contamination

        Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required

        when ELC is drained from the cooling system.

        NOTICE

        Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control

        (if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer

        to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the

        cooling system is drained and the cooling system is

        refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level

        reaches the normal operating temperature and until

        the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the

        coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the

        specified level.

        Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effective-

        ness of  the ELC and  shortens the  ELC service life.

        Use only  Perkins Products  for premixed or  concen-

        trate coolants.  Failure to follow  these recommenda-

        tions

        component life.

        can   result   in    shortened   cooling   system

        ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to

        a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty

        antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10

        percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of

        the following procedures:

        Changing to Perkins  ELC

        To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins

        ELC, perform the following steps:

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        43

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        •   Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.

        Dispose of the coolant according to local

        regulations. Flush the system with a 5 to 10

        percent solution of Perkins ELC. Fill the system

        with the Perkins  ELC.

        Table 8

        Equation For Adding The SCATo The Heavy-Duty Coolant At

        The Initial Fill

        V × 0.045 = X

        V is the total volume of the cooling system.

        •   Drain a portion of the cooling system into a

        suitable container according to local regulations.

        Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.

        This procedure should lower the contamination to

        less than 10 percent.

        X is the amount of SCA that is required.

        Table 9 is an example for using the equation that is in

        Table 8 .

        Table 9

        •   Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty

        Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change

        the coolant at the interval that is recommended for

        the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.

        Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCATo The Heavy-

        Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill

        Total Volume of the

        Cooling System (V)

        Multiplication

        Factor

        Amount of SCA

        that is Required (X)

        Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and

        SCA

        15 L (4 US gal)

        × 0.045

        0.7 L (24 oz)

        Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty

        Coolant For Maintenance

        NOTICE

        Commercial   Heavy-Duty  Coolant   which   contains

        Amine as part of the corrosion protection system must

        not be used.

        Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic

        additions of an SCA.

        Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration

        of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and

        Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval

        NOTICE

        Never operate  an engine without  water temperature

        regulators in the  cooling system. Water  temperature

        regulators help to maintain the  engine coolant at the

        correct operating temperature. Cooling  system prob-

        Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Cooling System

        Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add.

        Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.

        The size of the cooling system determines the

        amount of SCA that is needed.

        lems

        regulators.

        can

        develop

        without

        water

        temperature

        Use the equation that is in Table 10  to determine the

        amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:

        Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to

        ensure adequate protection against boiling or

        freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a

        refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A

        hydrometer should not be used.

        Table 10

        Equation For Adding The SCATo The Heavy-Duty Coolant For

        Maintenance

        Perkins  engine cooling systems should be tested at

        500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.

        V × 0.014 = X

        V is the total volume of the cooling system.

        Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.

        An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour

        intervals.

        X is the amount of SCA that is required.

        Table 11 is an example for using the equation that is

        in Table 10 .

        Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at

        the Initial Fill

        Table 11

        Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCATo The Heavy-

        Duty Coolant For Maintenance

        Use the equation that is in Table 8  to determine the

        amount of SCA that is required when the cooling

        system is initially filled.

        Total Volume of the

        Cooling System (V)

        Multiplication

        Factor

        Amount of SCA

        that is Required (X)

        15 L (4 US gal)

        × 0.014

        0.2 L (7 oz)

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        44

        SEBU9072

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty

        Antifreeze

        Table 12 provides a known reliable baseline in order

        to judge the expected performance of distillate diesel

        fuels that are derived from conventional sources.

        •   Clean the cooling system after used coolant is

        drained or before the cooling system is filled with

        new coolant.

        Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the

        use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality

        fuel will give the following results: long engine life and

        acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must

        meet the minimum requirements that are stated in

        table 12 .

        •   Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is

        contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.

        NOTICE

        i06218481

        Fluid Recommendations

        (Fuel Recommendations)

        The footnotes are a key part of the Perkins Specifica-

        tion for Distillate Diesel  Fuel Table. Read ALL of  the

        footnotes.

        •   Glossary

        •   ISO International Standards Organization

        •   ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials

        •   HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for

        Lubricity testing of diesel fuels

        •   FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

        •   CFRCo-ordinating Fuel Research

        •   LSD Low Sulfur Diesel

        •   ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel

        •   RMERape Methyl Ester

        •   SME Soy Methyl Ester

        •   EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the

        United States

        General Information

        NOTICE

        Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date

        information. By use  of this document you agree  that

        Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible

        for errors or omissions.

        NOTICE

        These recommendations are subject to change  with-

        out notice.  Contact your local  Perkins distributor  for

        the most up-to-date recommendations.

        Diesel Fuel Requirements

        Perkins  is not in a position to evaluate continuously

        and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel

        specifications that are published by governments and

        technological societies.

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        SEBU9072

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        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Table 12

        Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel

        Property

        UNITS

        Requirements

        “ASTM Test”

        “ISO Test”

        Aromatics

        Ash

        %Volume

        %Weight

        35% maximum

        “D1319”

        “D482”

        “ISO 3837”

        “ISO 6245”

        0.01% maximum

        Carbon Residue on 10%

        Bottoms

        %Weight

        0.35% maximum

        “D524”

        “ISO 4262”

        Cetane Number  (1)

        Cloud Point

        -

        40 minimum

        “D613 or D6890”

        “D2500”

        “ISO 5165”

        “ISO 3015”

        °C

        The cloud point must not ex-

        ceed the lowest expected

        ambient temperature.

        Copper Strip Corrosion

        Distillation

        -

        No. 3 maximum

        “D130”

        “D86”

        “ISO 2160”

        “ISO 3405”

        °C

        10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)

        maximum

        90% at 360 °C (680 °F)

        maximum

        Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(2)  Kg / M

        3

        800 minimum and 860

        maximum

        No equivalent test

        “ISO 3675” or “ISO 12185”

        Flash Point

        °C

        -

        legal limit

        “D93”

        “ISO 2719”

        Thermal Stability

        Minimum of 80% reflectance

        after aging for 180 minutes

        at 150 °C (302 °F)

        “D6468”

        No equivalent test

        Pour Point

        °C

        6 °C (10°F)

        “D97”

        “ISO 3016”

        Minimum below ambient

        temperature

        Sulfur

        %mass

        (3)

        “D5453 or /D26222”

        “D445”

        “ISO 20846” or “ISO 20884”

        “ISO 3405”

        Kinematic Viscosity  (4)

        2

        “MM /S (cSt)”

        The viscosity of the fuel that

        is delivered to the fuel injec-

        tion pump. “1.4 minimum

        and /4.5 maximum”

        Water and sediment

        Water

        % weight

        % weight

        % weight

        mg/100mL

        mm

        0.05% maximum

        “D1796”

        “D1744”

        “D473”

        “D381”

        “D6079”

        “ISO 3734”

        0.05% maximum

        No equivalent test

        “ISO 3735”

        Sediment

        0.05% maximum

        Gums and Resins(5)

        10 mg per 100 mL maximum

        0.46 maximum

        “ISO 6246”

        Lubricity corrected wear

        “ISO 12156-1”

        scar diameter at 60 °C

        (140 °F).  (6)

        Fuel cleanliness  (7)

        -

        “ISO”18/16/13

        “7619”

        “ISO 4406”

        (1)

        In order to insure minimum cetane number of 40 a distillate diesel fuel should have minimum cetane index of 44 when ASTM D4737 test meth-

        od is used. A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.

        Density range allowed includes summer and winter diesel fuel grades. Fuel density varies depending on the sulfur level where high sulfur fuels

        have higher densities. Some unblended alternative fuels have lower densities which are acceptable, if all the other properties meet this

        specification.

        (2)

        (3)

        Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable regu-

        lations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. LSD fuel with less than 0.05 percent (≤ 500 ppm (mg/kg)) sulfur is strongly recom-

        mended for use in these engine models. Diesel fuel with more than 0.05 percent (≥ 500 ppm (mg/kg)) sulphur can be used only where allowed

        by legislation. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components.

        Fuel sulfur levels above 0.05% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to General lubricant

        Information.

        (continued)

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        46

        SEBU9072

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        (Table 12, contd)

        (4)

        The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity

        requirementand the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40° C  (104° F) of either the "ASTM D445" test method or the

        "ISO 3104" test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or great, er viscosity at the

        fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.

        Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).

        The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the  “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM

        D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel

        supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in

        the fuel system.

        (5)

        (6)

        (7)

        Recommended cleanliness level for fuel as dispensed into machine or engine fuel tank is "ISO 18/16/13 or cleaner as per ISO 4406. Refer to

        the "Contamination Control Recommendations for Fuels" in this chapter.

        Viscosity

        NOTICE

        Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins rec-

        ommendations can cause the following effects: Start-

        ing  difficulty, poor  combustion,  deposits in  the  fuel

        injectors, reduced service life of  the fuel system, de-

        posits in the combustion chamber and reduced serv-

        ice life of the engine.

        Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering

        resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with

        increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity

        follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil

        fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.

        Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic

        viscosity that is divided by the density. The

        determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by

        readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard

        temperatures. Refer to “ISO 3104” for the test

        method.

        Engines that are manufactured by Perkins   are certi-

        fied  with the  fuel  that  is  prescribed by  the  United

        States  Environmental  Protection   Agency.  Engines

        that are manufactured by  Perkins   are certified  with

        the fuel that is  prescribed by the European Certifica-

        tion and other regulatory agencies. Perkins  does not

        certify diesel engines on any other fuel.

        The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel

        serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.

        Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to

        lubricate the fuel system in both cold temperatures

        and hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity of the

        fuel is lower than 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump,

        damage to the fuel injection pump can occur. This

        damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure. Low

        viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting, stalling,

        and loss of performance. High viscosity may result in

        seizure of the pump.

        Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has

        the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed

        by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and

        other appropriate regulatory agencies.

        Diesel Fuel Characteristics

        Perkins Recommendations

        Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and

        4.5 cSt that is delivered to the fuel injection pump. If a

        fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel

        may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater

        Cetane Number

        Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter

        ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a

        better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for

        fuels against proportions of cetane and

        viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high

        viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower

        the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.

        heptamethylnonane  in the standard CFR engine.

        Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.

        Density

        Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally

        expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane

        number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.

        The United States of America is one of the territories

        that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane

        value of 40 is required during average starting

        conditions. A higher cetane value may be required for

        operations at high altitudes or in cold-weather

        operations.

        Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a

        specific temperature. This parameter has a direct

        influence on engine performance and a direct

        influence on emissions. This influence determines the

        heat output from a given injected volume of fuel. This

        parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C

        (59 °F).

        Perkins  recommends a value of density of 841 kg/m3

        in order to obtain the correct power output. Lighter

        fuels are acceptable but these fuels will not produce

        the rated power.

        Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause

        of problems during cold start.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        47

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Sulfur

        In case of the fuels which do not meet specified

        lubricity requirement appropriate lubricity additive can

        be used to enhance the lubricity of the fuel.

        21820275 Perkins  Diesel Fuel Conditioner is the

        approved additive refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel

        Conditioner”.

        The level of sulfur is governed by emissions

        legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,

        or international regulations can require a fuel with a

        specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel and

        the fuel quality must comply with all existing local

        regulations for emissions.

        Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances

        when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier

        can make recommendations for additives to use and

        for the proper level of treatment.

        LSD fuel with less than 0.05 percent (≤ 500 ppm (mg/

        kg)) sulfur is strongly recommended for use in these

        engine models.

        Distillation

        ULSD less than 0.0015% (≤15 PPM (mg/Kg)) sulphur

        is acceptable to use in these engine models. The

        lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar

        diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO

        12156-1”. Refer to “Lubricity” for more information.

        Distillation will give an indication of the mixture of

        different hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light

        weight hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of

        combustion.

        Fuels with sulphur content higher than 0.05 percent

        (500 PPM) can be used where allowed by legislation.

        Classificationof the Fuels

        Diesel engines have an ability to burn wide variety of

        fuels. Below is a list of typically encountered fuel

        specifications that have been assessed as to their

        acceptability and are divided into following

        categories:

        Fuel with a high sulfur content can cause engine

        wear. High sulfur fuel will have a negative impact on

        emissions of particulates. High sulfur fuel can be

        used if the local emissions legislation will allow the

        use. High sulfur fuel can be used in countries that do

        not regulate emissions.

        Group 1: Preferred Fuels

        When only high sulfur fuels are available, it will be

        necessary that high alkaline lubricating oil is used in

        the engine or that the lubricating oil change interval is

        reduced. Refer to Operation and Maintenance

        Manual, “Fluid Recommendations (Lubricant

        Information)”for information on sulfur in fuel.

        The following fuel specifications are considered

        acceptable.

        •   Fuels that meet the requirements that are listed in

        the table 12 .

        Lubricity

        “EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4”

        “ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D”

        Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump

        wear. The lubricity of the fluid describes the ability of

        the fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that

        are under load. This ability reduces the damage that

        is caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on

        the lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur

        limits were mandated, the lubricity of the fuel was

        believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.

        “JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3”

        acceptable provided lubricity ware scar diameter

        does not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per

        “ISO 12156-1”  .

        “BS2869 - Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red

        Diesel”

        The lubricity has particular significance to the current

        low viscosity fuel, low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic

        fossil fuel. These fuels are made in order to meet

        stringent exhaust emissions.

        Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed

        wear scar diameter of 0.46 mm  (0.01811 inch) as per

        “ISO 12156-1” . Refer to “Lubricity”.

        The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar

        diameter of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch). The fuel lubricity

        test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at

        60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1”.

        Group 2: Aviation Kerosene Fuels

        Following kerosene and jet fuel specifications are

        acceptable alternative fuels, and may be used on a

        contingency base for emergency or continuous use,

        where standard diesel fuel is not available and where

        legislation allows their use:

        NOTICE

        The fuels system has been qualified  with fuel having

        lubricity up to  0.46 mm  (0.01811  inch)wear scar di-

        ameter as tested by  “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher

        wear scar diameter than 0.46 mm  (0.01811 inch) will

        lead to reduced  service life and premature  failure of

        the fuel system.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        48

        SEBU9072

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        “MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F34 (JP-8)”

        “MIL-DTL-83133 NATO F35”

        “MIL-DTL-5624 NATO F44 (JP-5)”

        “MIL-DTL-38219 (USAF) (JP7)”

        “NATO XF63”

        Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOTacceptable for

        use as a fuel in any concentration in compression

        engines. Without esterification, these oils may gel in

        the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not

        be compatible with many of the elastomers that are

        used in engines that are manufactured today. In

        original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a

        fuel in compression engines. Alternate base stocks

        for biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste

        cooking oils, or various other feedstocks. In order to

        use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil

        must be esterified.

        “ASTM D1655 JETA”

        “ASTM D1655 JETA1”

        Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred

        to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.

        NOTICE

        These fuels are only  acceptable when used with ap-

        propriate lubricity  additive and  must meet  minimum

        requirements that are listed in table 12 . The lubricity

        of these fuels must not exceed wear scar diameter of

        0.46 mm (0.01811 inch) as per “ISO 12156-1” . Refer

        to “Lubricity” and Perkins  Diesel Fuel Conditioner.

        Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.

        The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly

        available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent

        biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,

        which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate

        diesel fuel.

        Note: The percentages given are volume-based. The

        U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM D975-

        09a”  includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.

        Note: Minimum cetane number of 40 is

        recommended otherwise cold starting problems or

        light load misfire might occur. Since jet fuel

        specifications do not mention cetane requirements,

        Perkins  recommends that a fuel sample is taken to

        determine the cetane number.

        European distillate diesel fuel specification

        “EN590:2010”  includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.

        Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are

        certified by use of the prescribed Environmental

        Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification

        fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other

        fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of

        using the correct fuel that is recommended by the

        manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other

        appropriate regulatory agencies.

        Note: Fuels must have minimum viscosity of 1.4 cSt

        delivered to the fuel injection pump. Cooling of the

        fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or greater

        viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Perkins

        recommends that the actual viscosity of the fuel, be

        measured in order to determine if a fuel cooler is

        needed. Refer to “Viscosity”.

        Note: Rated power loss of up to 10 percent is

        possible due to lower density and lower viscosity of

        jet fuels compared to diesel fuels.

        SpecificationRequirements

        The neat biodiesel must conform to  “EN14214” or

        “ASTM D6751” (in the USA) and can only be blended

        in mixture of up to 20 percent, by volume in

        acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting requirements

        that are listed in table 12 or the latest edition of

        “EN590” and “ASTM D 975” commercial standards.

        This blend is commonly known as B20.

        Biodiesel Fuel

        Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl

        esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be

        made from various feedstock. The most commonly

        available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester

        (REM). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil.

        Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common

        biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is

        derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil

        are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together

        known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).

        Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with  “XX”

        representing the content of neat biodiesel contained

        in the blend with mineral diesel fuel (for example B5,

        B10, B20).

        In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must

        meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of

        “ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API

        gravity of 30-45.

        In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must

        be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited

        producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.

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        SEBU9072

        49

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is

        BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is

        accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel

        quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality

        standards is required.

        Perkins  T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most effective in

        cleaning and preventing the formation of deposits.

        Refer to “Perkins  Diesel Fuel System Cleaner” for

        more information. Perkins UMK8276 Diesel Fuel

        Conditioner helps to limit deposit issues by improving

        the stability of biodiesel while also hindering the

        production of new deposits. For more information

        refer to “Perkins  Diesel Fuel Conditioner”. Therefore

        the use of Diesel Fuel Cleaner and or Diesel Fuel

        Conditioner is strongly recommended when running

        biodiesel blends, especially B20.

        Engine Service Requirements with B20

        Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause

        debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive

        properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel

        lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can

        prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins

        recommends that after the initial usage of B20

        biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced

        at 50 hours.

        General Requirements

        Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result

        in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.

        Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of

        manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with

        the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer

        than 3 months.

        Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause

        fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore

        the regular service interval should be reduced to 250

        hours.

        Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential

        issues, Perkins strongly recommends that engines

        with limited operational time either do not use

        biodiesel blends or, while accepting some risk, limit

        biodiesel blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of

        applications that should limit the use of biodiesel are

        the following: Standby generator sets and certain

        emergency vehicles.

        When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and

        aftertreatmentsystems (if installed) may be

        influenced. This influence is due to the chemical

        composition and characteristics of biodiesel fuel,

        such as density and volatility, and to chemical

        contaminants that can be present in this fuel, such as

        alkali and alkaline metals (sodium, potassium,

        calcium, and magnesium).

        If biodiesel must be used, then the quality of the fuel

        needs to be periodically tested. The test must comply

        with  “EN15751”, commonly known as the Rancimat

        Test.

        •   Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when

        biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This

        increased level of fuel dilution when using

        biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the

        typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In cylinder

        emissions control strategies utilized in many of the

        industrial latest engine designs may lead to a

        higher level of biodiesel concentration in the

        engine oil pan. The long-term effect of biodiesel

        concentration in crankcase oil is currently

        unknown.

        Perkins  strongly recommends that seasonally

        operated engines have the fuel systems, including

        fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel

        before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of

        an application that should seasonally flush the fuel

        system is a combine harvester.

        Microbial contamination and growth can cause

        corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging

        of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for

        assistance in selecting appropriate antimicrobial

        additive.

        •   Perkins  recommends the use of oil analysis in

        order to check the quality of the engine oil if

        biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of

        biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is

        taken.

        Water accelerates microbial contamination and

        growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,

        water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.

        It is therefore essential to check frequently and if

        necessary, drain the water separator.

        Performance Related Issues with B20

        Due to the lower energy content than the standard

        distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2

        to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may

        deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.

        Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, led, tin, and

        zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the biodiesel

        fuel. The oxidation process can cause deposits

        formation therefore these materials must not be used

        for fuel tanks and fuel lines.

        Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an

        increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of

        which are deposits within the fuel injector. These

        deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted

        or modified fuel injection or cause other functional

        issues associated with these deposits.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        50

        SEBU9072

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Fuel for Cold Weather Operation

        Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not

        recommended and is due to potential damage to the

        fuel system or the engine. Your fuel supplier or the

        fuel manufacturer will add the appropriate

        supplemental diesel fuel additives.

        The European standard “EN590” contains climate

        dependant requirements and a range of options. The

        options can be applied differently in each country.

        There are five classes that are given to arctic climates

        and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.

        Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be

        required in some special circumstances. Fuel

        additives need to be used with caution. Contact your

        fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel

        additives are required. Your fuel supplier can

        recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the

        correct level of treatment.

        Fuel that complies with “EN590” CLASS 4 can be

        used at temperatures as low as −44 °C  (−47.2 °F).

        Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the

        physical properties of the fuel.

        The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” that is used in the

        United States of America may be used in cold

        temperatures that are below −18 °C  (−0.4 °F).

        Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should

        treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated

        fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in

        table 12 .

        In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the

        aviation kerosene fuels that are specified in “Group 1:

        Preferred Fuels”. These fuels are intended to be used

        in temperatures that can be as low as −54 °C

        (−65.2 °F). Refer to “Group 1: Preferred Fuels” for

        detail and conditions of use of the aviation kerosene

        fuels.

        Perkins  Diesel Fuel System Cleaner

        Perkins  T400012  Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel

        cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .

        If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,

        Perkins  require the use of Perkins  fuel cleaner. For

        more information on the use of biodiesel and

        biodiesel blends refer to “Biodiesel Fuel”.

        Mixing  alcohol or  gasoline  with diesel  fuel  can

        produce an explosive mixture in the engine crank-

        case or  the  fuel tank. Alcohol  or  gasoline must

        not be used  in order to dilute  diesel fuel. Failure

        to follow  this instruction  may result  in death  or

        personal injury.

        Perkins  fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can

        form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and

        biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of

        power and engine performance.

        Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the

        deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30

        hours of engine operation. For maximum results,

        continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.

        Perkins  fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going

        basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel

        system durability.

        There are many other diesel fuel specifications that

        are published by governments and by technological

        societies. Usually, those specifications do not review

        all the requirements that are addressed in table 12 .

        To ensure optimum engine performance, a complete

        fuel analysis should be obtained before engine

        operation. The fuel analysis should include all of the

        properties that are stated in the table 12 .

        Detailed instructions on the rate of which the fuel

        cleaner must be use are on the container.

        Aftermarket Fuel Additives

        Perkins  Diesel Fuel Conditioner

        The Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner part number

        21820275/(U5MK8276) is the only fuel conditioner

        recommended by Perkins. The diesel fuel conditioner

        is a proprietary metal and ash free formulation that

        has been extensively tested for use with distillate

        diesel fuels for use in Perkins diesel engines. The

        diesel fuel conditioner helps address many of the

        challenges that various fuels worldwide present in

        regards to fuel life/stability, engine startability, injector

        deposits, fuel system life, and long-term engine

        performance.

        NOTICE

        Perkins does not  warrant the quality or performance

        of non-Perkins  fluids and filters.

        When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables

        (filters, additives) which are made by other manufac-

        turers are  used on  Perkins     products, the  Perkins

        warranty is not affected simply because of such use.

        However, failures that result  from the installation

        or use of  other manufacturers devices, accesso-

        ries, or  consumables are NOT Perkins

        defects.

        Therefore, the defects are NOT covered under the

        Perkins  warranty.

        Note: Diesel fuel additives/conditioners may not

        improve markedly poor diesel fuel properties enough

        to make poor diesel acceptable for use.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        51

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Diesel fuel conditioner is a proven high performance,

        multipurpose diesel fuel conditioner that is designed

        to improve:

        •   Use high-quality fuels per recommended and

        required specifications

        •   Fill fuel tanks with fuels of “ISO 18/16/13”

        cleanliness level or cleaner, in particular for

        engines with common rail and unit injection

        systems. When you refuel the tank, filter the fuel

        through a 4 µm absolute filter (Beta 4 = 75 up to

        200) in order to reach the recommended

        •   Fuel economy (through fuel system cleanup)

        •   Lubricity

        •   Oxidation stability

        cleanliness level. This filtration should be located

        at the device that dispenses the fuel to the fuel

        tank. In addition, filtration at the dispensing point

        should remove water to ensure that fuel is

        dispensed at 500 ppm water or less.

        •   Detergency/dispersancy

        •   Moisture dispersancy

        •   Corrosion protection

        •   Cetane (typically 2-3 cetane numbers)

        •   Perkins  recommends the use of bulk fuel filter /

        coalescer units which clean the fuel of both

        particulate contamination and water in a single

        pass.

        The diesel fuel conditioner also reduces the formation

        of gums, resins, and sludge, and disperses insoluble

        gums.

        •   Ensure that you use Perkins Advanced Efficiency

        Fuel Filters . Change your fuel filters per

        recommended service requirements or as needed.

        For maximum overall benefits, ask your fuel supplier

        to add the fuel conditioner at the recommended treat

        rate before fuel delivery. Or you may add the fuel

        conditioner at the recommended treat rate during the

        early weeks of fuel storage.

        •   Drain your water separators daily.

        ContaminationControl

        Recommendationsfor Fuels

        •   Drain your fuel tanks of sediment and water per

        the Operation and Maintenance Manual

        instructions.

        Fuels of “ISO 18/16/13” cleanliness level or cleaner

        as dispensed into the engine or application fuel tank

        should be used. Reduce power loss, fuel system

        failures, and related down time of engines will result.

        This cleanliness level is important for new fuel system

        designs such as common rail injection systems and

        unit injection systems. Injection system designs utilize

        higher fuel pressures and tight clearances between

        moving parts in order to meet required stringent

        emissions regulations. Peak injection pressures in

        current fuel injection systems may exceed 30,000 psi.

        Clearances in these systems are less than 5 µm. As a

        result, particle contaminants as small as 4 µm can

        cause scoring and scratching of internal pump and

        injector surfaces and of injector nozzles.

        •   Install and maintain a properly designed bulk filter /

        coalescer filtration system. Continuous bulk

        filtration systems may be required to ensure that

        dispensed fuel meets the cleanliness target.

        Consult your Perkins  distributor for availability of

        bulk filtration products.

        •   Centrifugal filters may need to be used as a pre-

        filter with fuel that is severely contaminated with

        gross amounts of water and/or large particulate

        contaminants. Centrifugal filters can effectively

        remove large contaminants. Centrifugal filters may

        not be able to remove the small abrasive particles

        required to achieve the recommended “ISO”

        cleanliness level. Bulk filter / coalescers are

        necessary as a final filter in order to achieve the

        recommended cleanliness level.

        Water in the fuel causes cavitation, corrosion of fuel

        system parts, and provides an environment where

        microbial growth in the fuel can flourish. Other

        sources of fuel contamination are soaps, gels, or

        other compounds that may result from undesirable

        chemical interactions in the fuels, particularly in

        ULSD. Gels and other compounds can also form in

        biodiesel fuel at low temperatures or if biodiesel is

        stored for extended periods. The best indication of

        microbial contamination, fuel additives, or cold

        temperature gel is rapid filter plugging of bulk fuel

        filters or application fuel filters.

        •   Install desiccant type breathers of 4 µm or less

        absolute efficiency with the ability to remove water

        on bulk storage tanks.

        •   Follow proper practices of fuel transportation.

        Filtration from the storage tank to the application

        promotes the delivery of clean fuel. Fuel filtration

        can be installed at each transport stage in order to

        keep the fuel clean.

        In order to reduce downtime due to contamination,

        follow these fuel maintenance guidelines.

        •   Cover, protect, and ensure cleanliness of all

        connection hoses, fittings, and dispensing nozzles.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        52

        SEBU9072

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        Consult your local Perkins  distributor for additional

        information on Perkins  designed and produced

        filtration products.

        Engine Oil

        Commercial Oils

        i06110858

        NOTICE

        Fluid Recommendations

        Perkins require the use of the following specifica-

        tion of  engine oil. Failure  to use the  appropriate

        specification of  engine oil  will reduce the  life of

        your engine.

        General Lubricant Information

        Table 13

        Because of government regulations regarding the

        certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the

        lubricant recommendations must be followed.

        Oil Specification

        Preferred Oil Specification

        Acceptable

        •   API

        American Petroleum Institute

        API CI-4 Plus

        API CI-4

        •   SAE

        Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.

        API CI-4 Plus meets the designed life of the product,

        the use of the appropriate engine oil is essential.

        Licensing

        API CI-4 Plus provide two design improvements over

        API CI-4 oil specification, soot viscosity control and

        product shear stability.

        The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by

        the American Petroleum Institute (API). For detailed

        information about this system, see the latest edition of

        the  “API publication No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear

        the API symbol are authorized by API.

        Maintenance intervals for engines that use

        biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely

        affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in

        order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use

        oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change

        interval that is optimum.

        Note: These engine oils are not approved by

        Perkins  and these engine oils must not be used:

        CC, CD, CD-2, CF-4, CG-4 and CH-4.

        Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations

        for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines

        The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined

        by the minimum ambient temperature during cold

        engine start-up, and the maximum ambient

        temperature during engine operation.

        Illustration 24

        g03813274

        Typical API symbol

        Refer to illustration 25 (minimum temperature) in

        order to determine the required oil viscosity for

        starting a cold engine.

        Terminology

        Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of

        “SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”

        abbreviations, and some classifications follow the

        “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine

        Oil”. In addition to Perkins  definitions, there are other

        definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing

        lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be

        found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/

        Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).

        Refer to illustration 25 (maximum temperature) in

        order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at

        the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.

        Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is

        available to meet the requirement for the temperature

        at start-up.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        53

        Refill Capacities

        Fluid Recommendations

        •   See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer

        to the illustration 25 in order to find the correct oil

        viscosity grade for your engine.

        •   At the specified interval, service the engine. Use

        new oil and install a new oil filter.

        •   Perform maintenance at the intervals that are

        specified in the Operation and Maintenance

        Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.

        Oil analysis

        Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling

        valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve

        is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil

        analysis will complement the preventive maintenance

        program.

        The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to

        determine oil performance and component wear

        rates. Contamination can be identified and measured

        by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the

        following tests:

        Illustration 25

        g03329707

        Lubricant Viscosities

        •   The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the

        engines metals. The amount of wear metal and

        type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The

        increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil

        is as important as the quantity of engine wear

        metal in the oil.

        Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked

        starts below the minimum ambient temperature.

        Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked

        starts that are above the minimum temperature that is

        stated, depending on the parasitic load and other

        factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine

        has not been operated for a period of time. This

        interval will allow the oil to become more viscous due

        to cooler ambient temperatures.

        •   Tests are conducted in order to detect

        contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.

        Aftermarket Oil Additives

        •   The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of

        the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis

        is used to compare the properties of new oil to the

        properties of the used oil sample. This analysis

        allows technicians to determine the amount of

        deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis

        also allows technicians to verify the performance

        of the oil according to the specification during the

        entire oil change interval.

        Perkins  does not recommend the use of aftermarket

        additives in oil. The use of aftermarket additives in

        order to achieve the engines maximum service life or

        rated performance is not necessary. Fully formulated,

        finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial

        additive packages. These additive packages are

        blended into the base oils at precise percentages in

        order to help provide finished oils with performance

        characteristics that meet industry standards.

        There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the

        performance or the compatibility of aftermarket

        additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not

        be compatible with the finished oils additive package,

        which could lower the performance of the finished oil.

        The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the

        finished oil. This failure could produce sludge in the

        crankcase. Perkins  discourages the use of

        aftermarket additives in finished oils.

        To achieve the best performance from a Perkins

        engine, conform to the following guidelines:

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        54

        SEBU9072

        Maintenance Recommendations

        System Pressure Release

        Maintenance

        Recommendations

        Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to

        remove air pressure from the fuel system.

        Engine Oil

        i02909163

        To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn

        off the engine.

        System Pressure Release

        Coolant System

        i05963859

        Welding on Engines with

        Electronic Controls

        Pressurized system: Hot  coolant can cause seri-

        ous burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until ra-

        diator is cool.  Then loosen cap  slowly to relieve

        the pressure.

        NOTICE

        Because  the strength  of  the  frame may  decrease,

        some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto

        a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equip-

        ment or your Perkins distributor regarding welding on

        a chassis frame or rail.

        To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn

        off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap

        to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap

        slowly in order to relieve pressure.

        Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to

        avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and

        associated components. When possible, remove the

        component from the unit and then weld the

        Fuel System

        To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off

        the engine.

        component. If removal of the component is not

        possible, the following procedure must be followed

        when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic

        Engine. The following procedure is considered to be

        the safest procedure to weld on a component. This

        procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage

        to electronic components.

        High Pressure Fuel Lines (If Equipped)

        NOTICE

        Contact with high  pressure fuel may  cause fluid

        penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel

        spray may  cause a  fire hazard. Failure  to follow

        these  inspection,  maintenance  and  service  in-

        structions may cause personal injury or death.

        Do not  ground  the welder  to electrical  components

        such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can

        cause damage  to the drive  train bearings, hydraulic

        components,

        components.

        electrical

        components,

        and

        other

        Clamp the ground cable from the  welder to the com-

        ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp  as close

        as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos-

        sibility of damage.

        The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are

        between the high pressure fuel pump and the high

        pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are

        between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These

        fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel

        systems.

        Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from

        This is because of the following differences:

        explosive hazards.

        •   The high pressure fuel lines are constantly

        charged with high pressure.

        1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the

        OFF position.

        •   The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel

        lines are higher than other types of fuel system.

        2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned

        off.

        Before any service or repair is performed on the

        engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:

        3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the

        battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,

        open the switch.

        1. Stop the engine.

        2. Wait for ten minutes.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE


         

        SEBU9072

        55

        Maintenance Recommendations

        Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls

        4. Disconnect all electronic components from the

        wiring harnesses. Include the following

        components:

        •   Electronic components for the driven equipment

        •   ECM

        •   Sensors

        •   Electronically controlled valves

        •   Relays

        NOTICE

        Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sen-

        sors)  or electronic  component grounding  points  for

        grounding the welder.

        Illustration 26

        g01075639

        Use the example above. The current flow from the

        welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not

        damage any associated components.

        (1) Engine

        (2) Welding electrode

        (3) Keyswitch in the OFF position

        (4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position

        (5) Disconnected battery cables

        (6) Battery

        (7) Electrical/Electronic component

        (8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded

        and any electrical/electronic component

        (9) The component that is being welded

        (10) Current path of the welder

        (11) Ground clamp for the welder

        5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the

        part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as

        close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the

        possibility of welding current damage to the

        following components. Bearings, hydraulic

        components, electrical components, and ground

        straps.

        Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as

        a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic

        components are located between the welder ground

        and the weld, current flow from the welder could

        severely damage the component.

        6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and

        spatter.

        This document has been printed from SPI2. NOT FOR RESALE

         

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